quiz A:Learning

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If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock just after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates:

associative learning.

Learning is best defined as:

a relatively permanent change in the behavior of an organism due to experience.

John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n):

behaviorist.

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:

observable behavior.

Which of the following is an unconditioned response?

sweating in hot weather

Last year, Dr. Moritano cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to administering each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol?

classical conditioning

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n):

unconditioned stimulus.

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, the tone was initially a(n) ________ stimulus; after it was paired with meat, it became a(n) ________ stimulus.

unconditioned; conditioned

Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone:

extinction.

The occurrence of spontaneous recovery suggests that during extinction:

the CR is suppressed.

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by:

a biopsychosocial approach.

A person adhering to the cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on:

an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.

Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:

for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the US need not immediately follow the CS.

Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves:

cognitive processes.

Cognitive processes are:

important in both classical and operant conditioning.

You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to:

retrieve sticks and balls.

A Skinner box is a(n):

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

The type of learning associated with Skinner is:

operant conditioning.

Because Mr. Baron demonstrates appreciation only for very good classroom answers, his students have stopped participating in class. Mr. Baron most clearly needs to be informed of the value of:

shaping.

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of:

shaping.

Pet cats who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their cat food illustrate:

classical conditioning.

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying:

operant conditioning.

John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether:

academic achievement is influenced by a positive selfconcept.

The first experimental studies of associative learning were conducted by:

Pavlov.

A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a:

CS.

As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the UR.

your crying

In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred:

when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.

An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by:

a biopsychosocial approach.

Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with:

novel tastes.

Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:

for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the US need not immediately follow the CS.

The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning.

cognitive processes

Last evening May-ling ate her first cheeseburger and french fries at an American fast-food restaurant. A few hours later she became ill. It can be expected that:

May-ling will develop an aversion to the taste of a cheeseburger and french fries.

Operant conditioning is to ________ as classical conditioning is to ________.

Skinner; Pavlov

Learning associations between one's own behavior and resulting events is to ________ as learning associations between events one doesn't control is to ________.

operant conditioning; classical conditioning

If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates:

operant conditioning.

Which of the following is an example of shaping?

A parrot is rewarded first for making any sound, then for making a sound similar to "Laura," and then for "speaking" its owner's name.

A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n):

discriminative stimulus.

Conditioning is the process of:

learning associations.

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a(n):

UR

The "psychic secretions" that Pavlov initially considered an annoyance were:

conditioned responses.

In Pavlov's original experiment with dogs, salivation to meat was the:

UR

Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:

for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the US need not immediately follow the CS.

B. F. Skinner's work elaborated what E. L. Thorndike had called:

the law of effect.

When a conditioned stimulus is presented without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus, ________ will soon take place.

extinction

The idea that any perceivable neutral stimulus can serve as a CS was challenged by:

Garcia and Koelling's findings on taste aversion in rats.

In Garcia and Koelling's studies of taste-aversion learning, rats learned to associate:

taste with sickness.

If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by:

biological predispositions.

Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:

operant conditioning.

The study of respondent behavior is to ________ as the study of operant behavior is to ________.

Pavlov; Skinner

Shaping is a(n) ________ technique for ________ a behavior.

operant; establishing

In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as:

shaping.

A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):

conditioned response.

In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n):

unconditioned stimulus.

An organism learns associations between events it doesn't control during the process of:

classical conditioning.

A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ in order to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors.

Shaping

According to the text, learning involves:

a change in behavior due to experience.

If you have frightening experience immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates:

classical conditioning.

A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n):

conditioned response.

Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________.

cs"us

Experiments on taste-aversion learning demonstrate that:

for the conditioning of certain stimuli, the US need not immediately follow the CS.

Classical conditioning experiments by Rescorla and Wagner demonstrate that an important factor in conditioning is:

the predictability of an association.

The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a(n) ________ perspective.

behaviorist

Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves:

cognitive processes.

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