# AP Statistics Vocabulary

## 47 terms · AP Statistics Vocabulary for Gathering Data. The password is one of the many services that Mr. Rod offers.

### biased

any systematic failure of a sampling method to represent its population

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### strata

when groups of experimental units are similar, they are gathered into these groups

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### census

a sample that consists of the entire population

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### completely randomized

type of experiment in which all experimental units have an equal chance of receiving any treatment

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### confounding

when the levels of one factor are associated with the levels of another factor so their effects cannot be separated

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### control

aspects of the experiment that we know may have an effect on the response, but that are not the factors being studied

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### control group

experimental units assigned to a baseline treatment level

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### convenience

sampling design where individuals are chosen based on who is easily available

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### double blind

neither the subjects nor the people who have contact with them know which treatment a subject has received

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### experimental units

individuals on which an experiment is done

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### experiments

study in which subjects are randomly assigned to treatments

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### factor

variable whose levels are controlled by the experimenter

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### heterogeneous

not similar in makeup

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### homogeneous

similar in makeup

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### level

specific values that the experimenter chooses a factor

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### matched pairs

type of study in which subjects who are similar in ways not under study may be grouped together and then compared with each other on the variables of interest

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### multistage

sampling schemes that combine several sampling methods

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### nonresponse

type of bias that is problematic because the intended sample is incomplete

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### observational study

study based on data in which no treatments have been assigned to subjects

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### outcome

an individual result of a component of a simulation

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### placebo

treatment known to have no effect, administered so that all groups experience the same conditions

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### placebo effect

the tendency of many human subjects to show a response even when administered a fake treatment

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### population

the entire group of individuals or instances about whom we hope to learn

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### prospective

observational study in which subjects are followed to observe future outcomes

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### random behavior

an occurrence for which we know what outcomes could happen, but not which particular values will happen

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### randomization

process by which each individual is given a fair chance of selection

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### response

type of bias that is problematic because false information may be given

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### retrospective

observational study in which subjects are selected and then their previous conditions or behaviors are determined

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### sample

a (representative) subset of a population, examined in hope of learning about a population

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### simple random

sampling design in which each set of n elements in the population has an equal chance of selection

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### sampling frame

a list of individuals from whom the sample is drawn

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### sampling variability

the natural tendency of randomly drawn samples to differ, one from another

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### sample survey

a study that asks questions of a sample drawn from some population in the hope of learning something about the entire population

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### simulation

models random events by using random numbers to specify outcomes with relative frequencies that correspond to the true real-world relative frequencies we are trying to model

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### single blind

when either the subjects or the people who have contact with them do not know which treatment a subject has received

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### statistically significant

when an observed difference is too large to believe that it is likely to have occurred naturally

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### block

a subdivision of the population

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### stratified

sampling design in which the population is divided into several strata, and random samples are then drawn from each stratum

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### subjects

people who are studied

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### systematic

sample drawn by select an individual from a list and then each of the next N individuals from the sampling frame

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### treatment

the process or intervention applied to randomly assigned experimental units

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### trial

the sequence of several components representing events that we are pretending will take place

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### undercoverage

type of bias that is problematic because some groups are not represented in the sample

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### voluntary response

type of bias that is problematic because those who volunteer tend to have strong negative opinions

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### voluntary response

sampling design where individuals can choose on their own whether to participate in the sample

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### wording bias

a type of response bias where the question is posed to achieve a desired result

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