Unit V-Threats to Wellness

43 terms by athomp101 

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SPC/Nsg III/Theory/Siegel/Warman/Gallagher

affective domain

Known as the "feeling" domain and is divided into categories that specify the degree of a person's depth of emotional response to tasks; includes feelings, emotions, interest, attitudes, and appreciations.

andragogy

The art and science of helping adults learn.

behaviorism

Learning should be based on the learner's behavior.

cognitive domain

The "thinking" domain, includes six intellectual abilities and thinking processes beginning with knowing, comprehending, and applying to analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

compliance

The extent to which an individual's behavior conincides with medical or health advise.

cognitivism

Depicts learning as a complex cognitive activity.

geragogy

The term used to describe the process involved in stimulating and helping elderly persons to learn.

humanism

Learning that focuses on the feelings and attitudes of learners, the importance of the individual in identifying learning needs and taking responsibility for them, and the self-motivation of the learners to work toward self-reliance and independence.

pedagogy

The discipline concerned with helping children learn.

positive reinforcement

Giving rewards such as praise for a learner's achievements.

psychomotor domain

The "skill" domain; includes motor skills such as giving an injection.

readiness

Behaviors or cues that reflect a learner's motivation to learn at a specific time.

Key Point

The terms growth and development represent independent, interrelated, and dynamic processes.

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Growth is physical change and increase in size. The pattern of physiologic growth is similar for all people.

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Development is an increase in the complexity of function and skill progression. It is the capacity and skill of the individual to adapt to the environment.

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Genetics and environment are the primary factors influencing growth and development.

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The rate of a person's growth and development is highly individual, but the sequence of growth and development is predictable.

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Components of growth and development are generally categorized as physiologic, psychosocia, cognitive, moral, and spiritual.

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Robert Havighurst believes that learning is basic to life and that people continue to learn throughout life. His theory describes six age periods with developmental tasks for each period.

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Psychosocial development refers to the development of personality. Psychosocial theorists include Freud, Erickson, Peck, and Gould.

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Cognitive development refers to the manner in which people learn to think, reason, and use language. The most widely known cognitive theorist is Piagest.

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Moral development, a complex process not fully understood, involves learning what ought to be and what ought not to be done. Kohlberg's theory focuses on the reasons an individual makes a decision.

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The spiritual component of growth and development refers to individuals' understanding of their relationship with the universe and their perceptions about the direction and meaning of life. Fowler and Westerhoff are two theorists who describe stages of spiritual development or faith.

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In nursing, developmental theories can be useful in guiding assessment, explaining behavior, and providing a direction for nursing interventions.

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Prenatal or intrauterine development lasts about 9 calendar months.

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The embryonic phase is the 8-week period during which the fertilized ovum develops into an organism with most of the features of the human.

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Monitoring the infant's weight, length, head and chest circumferences, fontanelle size and status, vision, hearing, smell and taste, touch, reflexes, and motor development are important indicators to the newborn's growth and health.

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Infants from birth to 12 months reveal marked growth in size and stature with appropriate nutrition and care: Birth weight doubles by 5 months and triples by 12 months.

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During infancy, motor development is notable: At 1 month infants can lift their heads momentarily when prone; at 6 months they can sit unsupported; and at 12 months they can walk with help.

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Fulfillment of the infant's physiologic and psychologic needs is required to develop a basic sense of trust. Parents can enhance this sense of trust by responding consistently to an infant's needs, providing a predictable environment in which routines are established, and being sensitive to the infant's needs and meeting those needs skillfully and promptly.

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Cognitive development, for the infant, is a result of interaction between an individual and the environment. The infant needs a variety of sensory and motor stimuli.

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The toddler group, ages 12 months to 3 years, develops from having no voluntary control to being able to walk and speak. They also learn to control their bladders and bowels, and they acquire all kinds of information about their environment.

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During the preschool years, ages 4 to 5, physical growth slows, but control of the body and coordination increase greatly. The preschoolers' world gets larger as they meet relatives, friends, and neighbors.

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The school-age period starts when children are about 6 years of age, when deciduous teeth are shed. In general, this period from 6 to 12 years is one of rapid and dramatic change. Skills learned during this stage are particularly important in relation to work later in life and willingness to try new tasks.

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During psychosocial development, school-age children face Erikson's conflict of industry versus inferiority.

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School-age children begin to understand relationships and change from being egocentric to having cooperative interactions; according to Piaget, they are in the concrete operations phase of cognitive development.

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Most school-age children progress to the conventional level of moral development and to the mythic-literal stage of spiritual development.

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Rapid growth in height, development of secondary sexual characteristics, sexual maturity, and increasing independence from the family are major landmarks of adolescence.

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Peer groups assume great importance during adolescence; they provide a sense of belonging, pride, social learning, and sexual roles.

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Adolescents are at Fowler's synthetic-conventional stage of spiritual development.

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Adolescents between the ages of 11 and 15 begin the formal operations stage of cognitive development; they are able to think logically, rationally, and futuristically and can conceptualize things as they could be rather than as they are.

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The adolescent is at Kohlberg's conventional level of moral development, and some proceed to the postconventional or principled level.

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The four leading causes of adolescent death are motor vehicle crashes, homicide, suicide, and other unintentional injuries.

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