2 Types of Root Systems
Tap Root and Fibrous Root
protects the young radical and continues to slough off as the root grows
first observed the cell in 1665
- Cell is the basic unit of life
- Organisms are composed of cells
- Cells arise from other cells
simple cells that lack organelles
larger, more complex cells that have organelles (nuclei, mitochondria, etc.)
examples: plants, animals, fungi
What three things do plant cells have that animal cells don't?
- Cell walls
protects and supports the cell, is made of Cellulose, and allows water and other molecules to pass through
(like a cardboard box)
formed early and is located on the outermost layer
deposited on the inside, between Primary Cell Wall and Cell Membrane
"glues" adjacent cells together
aka: Plasma Membrane, is a lipid bi-layer that is differentially permeable (allows water through, but not other molecules)
the gel like stuff on the inside
indistinct matrix of water (90%), proteins, organic molecules, ions
distinct, membrane-bound sub-compartments within the cell
contains all genetic information in chromosomes
provides energy to cell b converting sugars into chemical energy
site for photosynthesis, produces sugars from carbon dioxide, water and sunlight. Also contains chlorophyll (what makes plants green)
the "recycling unit" of the cell, they are important in breaking down old cell components, contain many digestive enzymes, and manage waste
stores a water solution of sugars, salts, acids, proteins
Chloroplasts and Mitochondria are descendants of once free-living prokaryotes that were engulfed by larger cells, establishing a symbiotic relationship
the outermost, single layer of cells that absorbs water and nutrients
provides support and often stores sugars and starch
What are the functions of roots?
anchorage, absorption of water and minerals, and storage of surplus sugars and starch
What is the value of soil bacteria around root hairs?
help absorb nutrients
What force is involved in water movement into the roots?
movement from an area of high concentration of salt to an area of low concentration of salt
What is the functions of Stems?
supports leaves and fruits and conducts water and sugars throughout plant for above-ground organs
What are the two types of growth?
Primary and Secondary
is derived from Apical Meristems
comes from Internal Meristems
primary growth, increase in length
secondary growth, increase in width
What are the 2 types of stems?
Monocot and Dicot
has vascular buncles mixed throughout stem
has a vascular ring
Following last October's freak snow storm, the leaves of Japanese Maple Didn't fall off until the following Spring, why?
Abscission is a metabolic process, there was no energy to prompt the abscission process that drops the leaves
Blade / Lamina
flat expanded area of a leaf
stalk that connects the leaf blade to stem
Where are most of the chloroplasts found?
in the Palisade cells of the Leaf Mesophyll
attract insects and birds
protect the reproductive parts of the flower as they develop
the base upon which the flower develops
the male part of the flower consisting of a filament and the anther
the female part of the flower consisting of a stigma, style and ovary
stalk that holds up the anther
part of the stamen that produces and holds the pollen
found at the end of the pistil, it has a sticky surface to catch pollen
the neck of the pistil; pollen grows down the style to fertilize eggs in the ovary
part of the pistil that contains the ovules or immature seeds
contains both male and female parts
contains one or the other (Male/Female) parts
contain both male and female incomplete flowers on the same plant
contain either the male or the female flower on one plant