# Dependent and Independent Variables

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### variables

used in math and science; something that CAN be changed

### constant

something that CANNOT change

### manipulate/independent variable

one factor changed by the person doing the experiment; "manipulated variable"

### response/dependent variable

factors being measured in an experiment; changes in response to the changes in the independent/manipulated variable; also known as the "response variable"

### constants

factors that stay the SAME in an experiment

observes

### Where is the manipulated/independent variable usually plotted?

On the X-axis of a graph

### response/dependent variable

dependent variable; responds to changes in other variables in the experiment; the factor being measured in an experiment (what is observed AFTER the experiment)

### manipulated/independent variable

independent variable; the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experiment (what we know before the experiment)

### Where is the dependent/response variable usually plotted?

On the Y-axis of a graph

### controlled variables

quantities that a scientist wants to remain the same (constant); must be observed as CAREFULLY as the response variables

### Experimental Scientific Method

a set of scientific processes that scientists use to answer questions and solves problems in the world around them (cause/effect relationships)

### Experiment

an investigation designed to find out how variables affect outcomes or results

### Variable

anything that can change in an experiment that might affect the outcome

### Controlled Experiment

an experiment in which ONE variable is changed and the outcome is compared to a standard (control)

### Standard or Control

the basic procedure used in a controlled experiment, before changing any of the variables

### Hypothesis

an educated guess/prediction based on information and experience

### Data

pieces of information collected in an experiment/investigation

### Repeated Trials

Experimental tests done more than once.

### Conclusions

a statement that describes what an experiment/investigation showed, based on observations and data

### Two-Coordinate Graph

shows the outcome of a series of experiments when a variable is changed by increment (steps)

### X-axis

the horizontal axis on a graph (independent/manipulated variable)

### Y-axis

the vertical axis on a graph (dependent/response variable)

### Pendulum

a mass hung from a fixed point, free to swing back and forth when put into motion (grandfather clock, swing)

### Cycle

any motion of an object that periodically repeats (example: one full swing of the pendulum=one cycle)

### Mean or Average

usual; typical; MIDDLE

### System

a set of parts that are related in some way and work together (a part can be isolated in a controlled experiment)

Example: