Alkali metals (group 1A) - Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+, Fr+
Halides: Cl-, Br-, I-
except with Ag+, Pb2+, Hg22-, Cu2+
except with Ca2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Pb2+, Hg22+
except when bonded to ammonium, alkali metals, Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+
except when bonded to ammonium or alkalis
except when bonded to ammonium or alkalis
except when bonded to alkali metals, Ca2+, Ba2+, or Sr2+
except when bonded to alkali metals and ammonium
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be converted from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.
ΔE(system) +ΔE(surroundings) = 0
ΔE(system) = -[ΔE(surroundings)]
Another form of the First Law of Thermodynamics
ΔE= q + w
ΔE: change in internal energy
q: heat exchange between the system and surroundings
w: work done on (or by) the system
w=-PΔV when a gas expands against constant external pressure.
system gains heat
system loses heat
work is done ON system
work done BY system
net gain of energy by system
net loss of energy by system
ΔH is used to quantify the heat flow into or out of a system in a process that occurs at constant pressure
ΔH = H(products) - H(reactants)
ΔE = ΔH - PΔV or ΔH = ΔE + PΔV
Any process that gives off heat - transfers thermal energy from system to the surroundings.
H(products) < H(reactants)
ΔH < 0
Any process in which heat has to be supplied to the system from the surroundings.
H(products) > H(reactants)
ΔH > 0
Ideal gas law parameters
1. Volume = 0
2. No interactions between particles
- polar fases (eg HF) and heavy gases (I2) deviate from these rules because they interact with one another
3. Under high pressure
4. Low temperature
Ideal gas behavior (unreactive) under the conditions of low pressure and high temperature.
1. Gas is composed of molecules that are separated from each other by distances for greater than their own dimensions. The molecules can be considered points, that is, they possess mass but that negligible volume.
2. Gas Molecules are in constant motion in random directions. Collisions among molecules are perfectly elastic.
3. Gas molecules exert neither attractive nor repulsive forces on one another.
4. The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the temperature of thek gas in kelvins. Any two gases at the same temperature will have the same average kinetic energy. (KE=1/2 (mU[ave]^2)
van der Waals equation for NON-IDEAL Gases
[P(abs)+a(n/v)^2] x (V-nb) = nRT
Grahm's Law of diffusion
The gradual mixing of one gas with another by virtue of their kinetic properties.
It is a relatively slow process despite that very high velocity of the gas molecules
The process of a gas under pressure escaping from a container by passing through a small opening.
Average kinetic energy
only depends on temperature.
Average molecular speed
The average molecular speed increases as mass decreases.
For a given mass, the average molecular speed increases with increasing temperature, and DOES NOT depend on the gas pressure, volume, nor the amount of gas.
Root Mean Square
Specific Heat (s)
of a substance is the amount of heat (q) required to raise the termperature of one gram of the substance by 1 °C
Heat Capacity (q)
of a substance is the amount of heat (q) required to raise the temperature of a given quantity (m) of the substance by 1 °C.
Heat capacity relationship
c = ms
Heat (q) absorbed or released
Standard Enthalpy of formation
The heat change that results when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements at 1 atm.
The standard enthalpy of formation of the most stable form of an element is 0.
Enthalpy of solution
ΔH(solution) is the heat generated or absorbed when a certain amount of solute dissolves in a certain amount of solvent.
A substance that conducts electricity through water (aka. salt)
They have grades of intensity (strong and weak), determined by the portion of the substance that becomes or contributes to becoming ions.
Weak acids and bases are weak electrolytes
Generally Salts - things that highly dissociate in solution
Gives up an H+ if dissolved IN WATER
Ex. HCl(aq) ---(H2O)--> H+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
A substance that produces H+ and H3O+ in water
Gives up (produces) an OH- if dissolved IN WATER
ANYTHING that gives up a H+
ANYTHING that gives up an OH-
Universal net ionic equation for Arrhenius and Brønsted acid/bases
H+(aq) + OH-(aq) --> H2O(l)
Any substance that accepts electron density
Any substance that donates electrons
Six Strong Acids
HBr - hydrobromic acid
HCl - hydrocloric acid
HI - hydroiodic acid
H2SO4 - sulfuric acid
HNO3 - nitric acid
HClO3 - chloric acid
Six Strong Bases
LiOH - Lithium hydroxide
NaOH - sodium hydroxide
KOH - potassium hydroxide
Ba(OH)2 - barium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 - calcium hydroxide
Sr(OH)2 - strontium hydroxide