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A&P Bones

Intervertebral cartilage is not composed of hyaline cartilage? T or F

True

Appositional growth:

occurs when cartilage-forming cells secrete new matrix against the external face of the existing cartilage tissue.

The appendicular skeleton includes the upper and lower limb bones.

True

Ribs belong to the axial skeleton, T or F

True

Wrist bone is classified as a short bone T or F

True

Bones serve as an important reservoir of:

Calcium

Fossa are:

Bone Depressions

Yellow marrow is useful as:

A fat reserve

Bone is broken down by:

osteoclasts.

Yellow marrow can revert to red marrow if more red blood cells are needed by the body.

True

The structural unit of compact bone is:

the Haversian system.

Spongy bone contains osteons.

False

Collagen fibers do not provide for bone hardness.

True

Most bones below the base of the skull form by endochondral ossification.

True

At the end of secondary ossification, hyaline cartilage can be found:

at epiphyseal plates.

In adolescence, the "growth spurt" that is observed is mainly attributed to an increase in:

Sex Hormones

When Ca2+ concentration in the blood becomes lower than normal:

parathyroid hormone is released.

A patient is brought to the emergency room with a broken bone. According to the x-ray, the bone is fragmented into three pieces. This would be considered a:

comminuted fracture.

The final step in fracture repair is:

Bone remodeling

Rickets can be caused by:

a deficiency of vitamin D.

A condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function is:
osteoporosis.
osteopenia.
osteitis.
osteomalacia.
osteomyelitis.

osteoporosis.

Which of the following statements concerning the periosteum of a bone is NOT true?

A. The periosteum provides strong attachment and continuity from tendon to bone.
B. Periosteum is important for bone growth in width.
C. The periosteum consists of an outer, dense connective tissue layer and an inner osteogenic layer.
D. All bone surfaces in the body are covered by periosteum.
E. Blood vessels enter bone through periosteum.

All bone surfaces in the body are covered by periosteum.

During fetal development intramembranous ossification takes place in:

A.the medullary cavity.
B.lamellae.
C.the center of the epiphysis.
D.cartilage.
E.fibrous connective tissue membranes.

fibrous connective tissue membranes.

Mary is 50 years old. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals that portions of her skeleton show signs of osteoporosis. After reviewing the test results, her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone is prescribed for Mary?

A.Growth hormone
B.Thyroid hormone
C.Parathyroid hormone
D.Estrogen
E.Calcitonin

Estrogen

he bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids in areas of:

A.yellow marrow
B.red marrow.
C.spongy bone.
D.the ground substance.
E.the matrix of bone tissue.

yellow marrow

The cells that maintain mature compact bone are:

A.lacunae.
B.osteoblasts.
C.chondrocytes.
D.osteoclasts.
E.osteocytes.

osteocytes.

The lacunae of bone contain:

A.osteocytes.
B.blood cells.
C.chondroblasts.
D.osteons.
E.bone marrow.

osteocytes.

The process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to:

A.endochondral ossification.
B.the process of calcification.
C.the process of osteopenia.
D.the process of healing a fracture.
E.intramembranous ossification.

endochondral ossification.

The two types of osseous tissue are:

A.dense bone and compact bone.
B.bones and cartilage.
C.long bone and short bone.
D.spongy bone and cartilage.
E.compact bone and spongy bone.

compact bone and spongy bone.

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone:

A.puberty begins.
B.the bone becomes more brittle.
C.interstitial bone growth begins.
D.appositional bone growth begins.
E.long bones have reached their adult length.

long bones have reached their adult length.

Intramembranous ossification:

A.is responsible for long bone formation.
B.begins with a cartilaginous precursor.
C.begins within a connective tissue membrane.
D.is the most common way bones are formed.

begins within a connective tissue membrane.

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in the:

A.metaphysis.
B.epiphyseal line.
C.diaphysis.
D.epiphysis.

diaphysis.

Growth of a cartilage in which the chondrocytes within the matrix become active and proliferate is known as:

A.endochondral growth.
B.hypertrophic growth.
C.appositional growth.
D.interstitial growth.

interstitial growth.

Osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal through:

A.periosteum.
B.interstitial lamellae.
C.concentric lamellae.
D.canaliculi.

canaliculi.

Spongy bone contains all of the following, except:

A.trabeculae.
B.true osteons.
C.collagen fibers.
D.hydroxyapatite.

True osteons

The bones in the long axis of the body make up the:

A.axial skeleton.
B.appendicular skeleton.
C.trabeculae.
D.long bones.

axial skeleton.

Which of the following is a canal-like passageway?

A.Meatus
B.Tubercle
C.Fossa
D.Line

Meatus

Which of the following characteristics of skeletal cartilage limits its thickness?

A.It is resilient.
B.It is avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium that surrounds it.
C.It is primarily composed of water.
D.It has a girdle of perichondrium that resists outward expansion when it is compressed.

It is avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium that surrounds it.

The menisci of the knee are made of:

A.elastic connective tissue.
B.fibrocartilage.
C.hyaline cartilage.
D.dense connective tissue similar to ligaments and tendons.

fibrocartilage.

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth of cartilage?

A.Cells in the perichondrium differentiate into chondroblasts.
B.It grows from the outside.
C.Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from within the cartilage.
D.Cartilage-forming cells divide and secrete new matrix on the external surface of the cartilage.

Chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from within the cartilage.

___________ bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull.

A.Sesamoid
B.Flat
C.Short
D.Long

Sesamoid

All of the following are stored in the matrix of bones, except:

A.vitamin D.
B.insulin-like growth factor.
C.transforming growth factor.
D.calcium.

vitamin D.

A narrow, slit-like opening in a bone is referred to as a:

A.crest.
B.trochanter.
C.spine.
D.fissure.

fissure.

Which of the following structures anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone?

A.Perforating fibers
B.A nutrient foramen
C.Yellow bone marrow
D.Diploe

Perforating fibers

Which of the following sites is the site where bone marrow is routinely sampled in an adult?

A.The diaphysis of long bones
B.The head of the humerus
C.The diploe of the skull bones
D.The sternum

The sternum

Bone-forming cells originate from:

A.osteocytes.
B.osteoclasts.
C.osteoprogenitor cells.
D.osteoblasts.

osteoprogenitor cells.

The twisting of a long bone is prevented by which of the following?

A.Sharpey's fibers
B.Lacunae
C.Circumferential lamella
D.Volkmann's canals

Circumferential lamella

Hydroxyapatite in bone matrix that gives bone its hardness is primarily composed of:

A.calcium and osteoclasts.
B.calcium and vitamin D.
C.calcium and osteocytes.
D.calcium and phosphates.

calcium and phosphates.

Before eight weeks, the skeleton of the human embryo is composed of:

A.fibrous membrane.
B.compact bone.
C.lamellar bone.
D.spongy bone.

Fibrous membrane.

If a breastfeeding mother becomes vitamin D deficient, what disease is most likely to develop in the nursing infant?

A.Osteoporosis
B.Rickets
C.Dwarfism
D.Paget's disease

Rickets

Osteomyelitis is a condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function.

FALSE

Collagen in the bone matrix provides flexible strength.

TRUE

Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a calcified model.

FALSE

Excess growth hormone prior to puberty would result in gigantism.

TRUE

Mature bone cells are called chondrocytes.

FALSE

Parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoblast activity.

FALSE

Scapulae are formed by intramembranous ossification.

FALSE

Secondary ossification centers occur in the center of the diaphysis.

FALSE

The central canal of an osteon contains osteocytes.

FALSE

The hormone calcitonin functions to decrease the calcium ion in the blood.

TRUE

The most abundant mineral in the human body is calcium.

TRUE

The presence of an epiphyseal line indicates that long bone growth is still in process.

FALSE

The shaft of the long bone is called the diaphysis.

TRUE

Vitamin D is necessary for the formation of the organic framework of bone.

FALSE

Osseous tissue is avascular.

FALSE

Appositional growth in a skeletal cartilage will increase its overall length.

FALSE

A metacarpal is an example of a long bone.

TRUE

An increase in parathyroid hormone can cause bones to become porous and brittle.

TRUE

Increasing the percentage of collagen in a bone would make it become more rigid.

FALSE

Spongy bone in flat bones is called diploe.

TRUE

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