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urgency

the need for immediate action

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection

nocturia

excessive urination at night

interstitial cystitis

a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder

dysuria

painful or difficult urination

benign prostatic hyperplasia

enlargement of the prostate gland

antispasmodics

agents that alleviate muscle spasms

acidification

the increase in the concentration of acid

gram positive

bacteria that retains purple stain inside the cell wall during the Gram staining procedure

gram negative

bacteria with a more porous cell wall, does not retain purple stain, appears red/pink/orange after Gram straining procedure

bacteriostatic

agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria

bactericidal

preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms

antibiotic

a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections

spectrum

range of bacteria against which an antibiotic is effective

synergy

the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects

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