cause of WWI: militarism, alliances, imperialism, nationalism
building strong armed forces to prepare for war. if one nation increased its military strength, other countries felt threatened and built up their own military in response. Britain and Germany compete for naval supremacy. Germany believed that it had the best army and would win quickly.
Triple Alliance: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Triple Entente: France, Great Britain, Russia. Binds all the nations together to go to war. However, people thought that the alliances were equal enough to stop a big war. One country from each alliance starts to fight; all countries fight each other.
competition for power. who can acquire the largest empire and best resources; resources: iron ore (to make weapons) Where to find: Africa, Asia, the Pacific
feeling of pride in one's country/ desire for freedom/ self-determination (independence)/ unity Serbia wanted to be independent and out of Russia/ Austria-Hungary's shadow
Germany and France were rivals over territory. Germany was expanding and took over the Alsace-Lorraine in France; was very rich in iron ore (good for weapons and ships and such) Germany wanted to take Paris but was stopped by other foreign powers
Assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand
June 28, 1914. Gavrilo Principe shot him; he was a secret member of the Black Hand which was a group fighting for Serbian independence. Duke was disliked, but his assassination still sparked war.
defense agreement among nations
Balance of Power
system that prevents any one country from dominating the others
Serbian nationalist who assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria-Hungary
Battle of the Marne
September 1914: Germany tried to take Paris. On way to France, stormed through Belgium, but Belgium fought against them which gave British and French troops enough time to rally and stop Germany from taking Paris. Boosts Allies (Entente) confidence and puts the opposing sides in a deadlock
Battle of Verdun
February - December 1916. Another German offensive to take Paris. 10 months long: battlefield had highest density of death per sq. yard. 750,000 people killed for no gain of land or resources
Battle of the Somme
July-November 1916: Allied offense to push Germany out of France. British tunneled under German trenches and filled tunnels with dynamite: Germans realized what the British were doing and evacuated so explosions had no effect on them and they ambushed the Allies when they emerged: 58,000 Allies dead first day: Allies only gained 7 miles by end of battle
Austria, New Zealand, Canada, India, France, Russia, Great Britain, Belgium, Italy, and later, the U.S.
Selective Service Act
Established a military draft in the U.S.
teams of troops, ships, or equipment
a group of communists who overthrew the democratic Russian government
1917 revolutions drive Czar Nicholas II from power. 1914: Russians supported war. By 1917: Russia had lost over 1 million men. Overthrew government in Russia, then resigned from the war
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
a signed agreement between Russia and the Central Powers when Russia withdrew from the War. Russian surrendered Poland and the Ukraine to Germany
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
American troops in Europe; led by John. J. Pershing
nickname for American troops in Europe
11 am, November 11, 1918: when the cease-fire was called and the treaty to stop fighting was signed
the gathering of resources and preparation for war
Agency created to encourage farmers to produce more and to persuade the public to eat less; goal was to assure enough food was available for the troops; encourages "Wheatless Mondays, "Meatless Tuesdays" and "Porkless Thursdays."
a limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
compensation or repayment; compensation payable by a defeated nation for damages sustained by another nation as a result of hostilities.
Treaty of Versailles
June 1919: League of Nations created, France gets the Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany, France and Britain gain German colonies, Germany had to admit that it was their fault (war guilt): War Guilt Clause, Germany was required to pay reparations-- $300 billion, German Army limited to no more than 100,000 men, German navy could have only 6 warships and no u-boats, Germany could have no military aircraft. U.S. did not ratify treaty.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
the name given to the line of trenches which stretched from the English Channel across the battle fields of France and Belgium during WWI.
Name given to the fighting on the German-Russian, Austro-Russian and Austro-Romanian fronts.
to avoid a two-front war against France and Russia, Germans would defeat the French in the West, but Belgians fight the Germans when they travel through Belgium, British and French come to aid and protect Paris, preventing Germany from taking it, Germans got within 15 miles of Paris
two opposing sides fighting across from each other in trenches
Term used to describe the deadlock on the Western Front during the First World War.
Medical condition caused by prolonged exposure to the distressing experiences of trench warfare
German submarines (comes from unterseeboot)
Information given to show someone or something in a biased way
The isolation of an enemy's ports by means of warships to prevent passage of persons or supplies; used by Great Britain and Germany during WWI.
British passenger vessel sunk off coast of Ireland by u-boats, kill 128 Americans, Germany said they blew it up because it was carrying ammunition but it still angered the Americans
After Germany sunk a passenger ship and killed more Americans, they made the Sussex Pledge: Germany promised to warn neutral ships and instead of blowing up the ships, the Germans would board the boat and take all the supplies then turn the boat around
the state of not taking sides; especially in a war or dispute
January 1917 the British intercepted a telegram from the German government to the Mexican government offering German support if Mexico declared war against the US; offered to return land Mexico lost the US
Wilson's Fourteen Points
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a League of Nations
Right of the people to determine how they should be governed
League of Nations
a union of countries formed in 1919 by The Treaty of Versailles to uphold peace, security ans promote settlements by arbitration (an official agreement)