Music in World Cultures

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Exam 1, South and North (Carnatic and Hindustani) Indian music

carnatic/ bhajan

Devi Niye Tunai genre (c/b)

voice, drone, mridangam

sound producers in Devi Niye Tunai

Mridangam

most common southern Indian drum. Pitch drum on right head, on base head there is deeper pitch variation.

drum, improvised

In the song Devi Niye Tunai, both the __ and the singing are ___.

PAPCP

in Devi, the song form is this: (5 letters)

keeravani

the raga of Devi

devotional

Devi is especially __ because it is about a god and is carnatic

Pallavi

which verse does the drum enter in devi?

adi

what is the tala in devi?

8, 4, 2, 2

In Devi, the tala has __ beats and is subdivided into __ + __ + __.

the vocals

during Sarasiruha, the instrumentals are based on what?

natai

what raga is Sarasiruha?

veena, mridangam

the sound producers in Sarasiruha are the __ and the __

Saraswati

Sarasiruha is meant to be sung addressing __, who is the goddess of music and learning.

ATKKsTaK

the form of Sarasiruha is this: (AAAAbAbA)

kriti

when is the adi tala introduced in the Sarasiruha song?

tanam

what section of Sarasiruha has tala but no raga?

alapana and tanam

which sections (2) of Sarasiruha have raga but no tala?

kriti and (kalpana) svara

which sections (2) of Sarasiruha have both raga and tala?

veena

In the beginning of Sarasiruha, there are two improvised sections (the alapana and the tanam) during which the __ player performs alone.

free (and) improvised

What distinguishes the alapana from the tanam in Sarasiruha? The alapana is completely __ and __.

kriti

When does the drum enter in Sarasiruha?

the singer sings the names of the notes instead of lyrics

What distinguishes the kalpana svara from the rest of the kriti? t s s t n o t n i o l

mughal empire (around 1605)

in what cultural context did the Raga Yaman/hindustani music style develop?

sitar and tabla

what are the sound producers in raga yaman? (2)

gat

a pre-composed melody in the hindustani music

mukhra

initial phrase of the gat (melody)

pre-composed, improvised

Gat-tora: alternates with a __-__ melody (gat), and __ sections (tora).

1, 5, 13, 9

in the Raga Yaman, the tal is called Tintal and there is clapping on _, _, _, and hand waving on beat _.

AG(medium)J(fast)

form of Raga Yaman AAA

jhala

energetic use of rhythm, follows the gat-tora and is accompanied by a tabla.

Tihai

precomposed phrase that is repeated three times to add emphasis to an arrival or to signal a shift to a new section.

gurukulam

this word mean's at the guru's house

20th

what century did school really get bigger for teaching music?

veena

an instrument with 3 drone strings and 4 playing strings. Complex slides and pulls of the strings allow the musician to interpret the character of each raga and its subtle intonation.

tambura

an instrument that is unfretted and round-bodied, with a hollow neck and four or five (rarely six) wire strings. The strings of the Tambura are plucked one after another in a standard pattern, in order to create a tonic resonance field in Hindustani classical music.

late 1700s

when was the genre kriti made? (late) __

carnatic

carnatic or hindustani style has more ragas?

talkies

with the invention of these, films were no longer silent and it created a whole new style of music

temples, musicians, buying, radio, schools

some changes to music patronage in 20th century: decline of power in ___, __ moving to cities, __ tickets to concerts, __ and tv, and __.

tyagaraja

a famous carnatic artist. he was the inventor of the kriti

tansen

main singer of mongal court. he invented a ton of ragas still used today.

devadasi

young women who were ritually married to the god of a particular Hindu temple. They got to be literate, and were of higher status.

British, prostitution

In 1799, the __ took control of most revenues and this accelerated the decline of the system of patronage that had been supporting the devadasis and other temple services.Because of that, many devadasis lost their livelihood and hones and turned to __ and were overall viewed as prostitutes.

decline, urban, recording

The rise of the urban middle class affected music and dance performances in the 20th century by: __ of courts, rise of __ middle class, patronage to general public, radio, __ industry, film industry, schools.

arranged marriage

young girls especially were expected to learn at least enough music so that when it came time for an __ __, the parents could "sell" her skills to the family and the groom could dream of being seranaded by his bride.

texture

this is the interrelationships of simultaneous sounds.

melody

this is the pitch aspect of music

sound producers

this is who/what makes the sound we hear (vocal/instrumental)

form/structure

this is what happens musically from beginning to end of piece

rhythm/meter

this is the time aspect of music

text

this is the meaning/significance of song words

tanam

verse of south indian music that is highly rhythmic exposition of the raga. No tala but a strong sense of a beat.

alapana

verse of south indian music that is nonmetrical, no regular beat; flowing proselike "breath rhythms", phrases that eventually come t o rest on important pillar notes.

harmonium

instrument with a small box with a bellows and a keyboard

sitar

instrument remotely related to a guitar with a very long, wide neck

tambura

instrument similar to the sitar but with no frets, because its strings are simply plucked to provide a drone

tabla

instrument that's a pair of small drums

pakhavaj

instrument thats another drum, barrel-shaped and has 2 heads

alap

raga improvisation in free rhythm.

lay

tampo in north indian music

tan

rapid improvisation in hindustani music

jor

section that follows the alap

jhola

concluding section of instrumental improvisation...performers make lively and fast rhythmic patterns on the drone strings.

tala

meter in hindustani music

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