the basic unit of structure and function in living things
an instrument that makes small objects look larger
a microscope that contains only one lens
a light microscope that has more than one lens
cut a thin slice of cork and looked at it under his microscope. To him, the cork seemed to be made up of empty little boxes, which he named cells.
Anton van Leewenhoek
looked at pond water and saw "animalcule" (little animals), also looked at scrapings from teeth (bacteria)
concluded that all plants are made of cells
after observing different animal cells, concluded that all animals are made up of cells. Eventually they combined their ideas and became convinced that all living things are made of cells.
He was the scientist who said, "All cells come from other cells.": new cells are formed only from cells that already exist
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
the ability to see things larger than they are
The ability to clearly distinguish the individual parts of an object; sharpness of an image
instrument that uses a beam of electrons instead of light to magnify structures up to 500,000 times actual size; allows scientists to view structures within a cell
incoming light rays bend as they pass through this lens; a magnifying glass is an example
a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
the outside boundary of a cell; controls which substances can enter or leave the cell
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane
the process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
When the concentration of a solute is the same throughout a solution; a state of balance
double membrane perforated with pores that control the flow of materials in and out of the nucleus
strands of genetic material floating in the nucleus; instructions for directing the cell's functions
structure inside the nucleus, where ribosomes are made
rod-shaped cell structures that produce most of the energy needed to carry out the cell's functions; powerhouse of the cell
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
function as factories to produce proteins
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
flattened sacs and tubes that receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum, packages them and distributes them to other parts of the cell
capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
sac-like structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, carbohydrates, and waste products
cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a certain job
group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
have a cell wall and cell membrane, do not have a nucleus, genetic material is in the cytoplasm, contain ribosomes and no other organelles, and are much smaller then plant and animal cells
organelle that controls all the activities of a cell and contains hereditary material made of proteins and DNA
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
two or more elements that are chemically combined
an energy-rich organic compound, such as a sugar or starch, made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Large organic molecule made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
a small molecule that is linked chemically to other amino acids to form proteins
a type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
energy-rich organic compound (fat, oil, wax) that's made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
very large organic molecule made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus, that contains the instructions cells need to carry out all the functions of life
Deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.
ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot.
The movement of materials through a cell membrane using cellular energy
The movement of materials through a cell membrane without using energy