Water passing through the cell membrane from higher concentrate to lower concentration
Chloride ions passing through a membrane channel from high to low concentration.
Is a type of membrane protein
In the figure where the blood cell is 0.9% and outside the cell is 0.5%, what is this called.
Swell and Burst
Where the blood cell is 0.9% and outside the cell is 0.5%, what will happen.
If molecules of a liqued are absorbing into a cell. The picture of the dots going into the ground.
The sodium potassium pump is an example of what.
Sodium Potassium pump pumps
3 Sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in.
All the time.
Photosynthesis in plants occurs only during the day, Respiration in plants only occurs.
Sodium- Potassium Pump
Is not considered to be passive transport.
A change in PH may alter the activity of an enzyme by changing its.
Inhibitors often bind to an enzyme's.
At very high temperatures, most enzymes.
Highly specific, lower activation energy, remain unchanged.
Describe Characteristics of an enzyme
Provided by ATP
Energy requiered for most endergonic reactions in the cell.
C6H12O6 + 02 - CO2 + H20 + Free Energy (ATP)
The equation for aerobic respiration.
Gycolysis, pyruvate oxidation, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain
Steps in aerobic respiration in order are.
Describes the role of NADH and FADH in aerobic respiration
They act as Electron carriers and donate electrons to form a proton-- motive force across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Anabolic reactions are reactions that make
The product of one reaction becomes the substrate fo the next reaction
Is true regarding regulation of biochemical pathways
Electron Transport Chain
What process of aerobic respiration generates the most ATP.
Citric acid cycle
What process of aerobic respiration generates the most NADH
All of the above, describe differences, A.R. produces more ATP per glucose than the other two, final electron acceptor in fermenttion is an organic molecule other than 02, A.R. requiers oxygen becasue it is the final electron acceptor
Best describes the differences between aerobic respiration and glycolosis and fermantation
6H20 and glucose
Complete the photosynthesis reaction, 6CO2 + ___ + sunlight - ___ + 602 + 6H20
Primary Functions of Photosynthesis
Use photons to reduce NADP to NADPH and make ATP then during a second series of reactions use ATP to make G3P and additional carbohydrates.
A network of pigments that channels excitation energy gathered by any of the molecules to the reaction center.
How many net ATP can optimally be made from the breakdown of one molecule of glycose.
CO2 is fixed and further fixed in a seperate type of cell in the leaf.
C4 photosynthesis is an adaption to hot dry conditions in which
does not describe facilitated diffusion of ions accross a membrane
What does not describe, Requiers ATP to move ions against concentration gradent
2nd Law of Themodynamics
The statement that energy moves from a more ordered, less stable form towards a less ordered state, move stable form a agrees with
The rate of reactions and their likelihood to occur depends on the amount of free energy available to break and form new bods. If energy is in short supply with in a cell which is most likely to occur with out input of some external energy source.
Convert light to a chemical energy form that heterotrophs can use
What advantage do autotrophs provide to heterophic organismis
Amount of Soil
What environmental variables does not directly affect the rate of photosynthesis
If you were growing indoor plants at your home, which light sources would be the worst for your plant.
Is the primary pigment responsible for absorbtion of photon energy in photosynthesis organisms.
CAM plants lose more water than c4 plants
Is not true regarding differences between c4 anc CAM photosynthesis
Discharge of material from the cell
Multienzyme complex contains
many enzymes that catalys a series of reactions
Out of the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space
The electron transport chain pumps proton
Anaerobic respiration, glycolisis, A.R., Fermantation
Process allows for the recycling of NADH cells
Animal cells placed in distilled water would
Proteins all extend from one side of the membrane to the other
What enzyme is the limiting one in the glycolysis.
Enzyme is the limiting enzyme in the citric acid cycle
To cataylze the fixation of CO2 during the calvin cycle
Produce 02 and water by breaking down glucose
Is not 1 of 3 processes of the calvin cycle.
Cyclic transport produces only ATP while noncylic produces ATP and NADPH
Most accuretley describes the difference between cyclic and noncyclic electron transport
G3P is stored as glycogen
Which is not a fate of G3P that is producedby the calvin cycle
Amount of Nucleic acids in the cell
Which does not influence membrane fluidity
During active transport 1 0f 3 protein systems are involved. They are uniport, symport, antiport - Which one can be described as a protein chanel that moves 2 solutes in the same direction.
Years ago living things first appear
First eukaryotes arose
Scientist are most certain that the atmosphere on the primitive earth did not contain
All cells are surrounded by a cell wall
Is not part of cell theory
The site of protein synthesis
Nucleus, mitochondria, chlorplasts
Have a double membrane and contain DNA.
Eukaryotic cells have a membrane bound nucleus and prokaryotes don't.
One difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic
The science that describes how organisms interract with other organisms and their enviroment.
Substance with a high concentration of hydrogen ion is
They link amino acids to form proteins
The statement is true according to peptide bonds
Solution has PH of 5
What is the solution. Increase hydrogen ion concentration: The PH will decrease and the solution becomes more acidic
Adenine, cytosine, gyanine, thymine
Lists nitrogenous bases found in DNA
Triglycerides or fatty acids
Not a function of protein
Olive oil, liqued at room temperature
Bacteria and Archaea
Two domains that describe prokaryotes
Best represents an anion
Chemical bond strongest in water
Observe, question, hypothesis, predictions, testings
Element has first 5 electron orbitals completly filled, how many total electrons are present around this.
How many electons shells, with 10, are filled around this element
Which protein structure is entirly alpha helices and beta sheets
Plant cells contain chloroplasts and animal cells dont
Which is a true difference between plant and animal cell
Cells limited in size.
Cell becomes larger, the volume increases, outweighs the area increase.
Not a proprety requiered for life
Contains more protons than electrons
True for an atom with a positive charge
Phosphate, sugar, nitrogenous base
Which currectly describes the components of a nucleotide
ture or false, Bacteria cells have a nucleus
Reaction how covalent bonds are formed between macromolecule monomers
Best represents a cation
Best describes the formation of covalent bonds
Involves the sharing of electrons to satisfy the octet rule
Absorbs excess H+
True concerning how antiacids work as a buffer
Which is not considered a macromolecule
Involves adding water molecules to break a covalent bond
Both contain identical nucleotides, A,T,G,C
Which is not a similarity between RNA and DNA
1:2:1 Ratio of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Distinguish carbohydrates from other macromolecues
The Miller-Urey experiment supports which, "Origin of Life", hypothesis
Ability to reproduce sexually and the presence of multicellularity is unique to which domain
Storage of DNA
Internal support and helps anchor organelles
Site of Photosynthesis
Collect, package, distrubute molecues made with in the cell and utilized at another location with in the cell
Equals the number of neutrons plus protons in an atom
Atomic number of an element
Hydrogen bond between 2 water molecules arises because water is
Subcomponets of a cells cytoskeleton
Microtubules, intermediate, filaments, microfilaments
Which macromolecules is formed by ester linkages
The life cycle of a diplontic animal
Diploid_zygote- mitosis- Diploid_adult-meiosis- haplid_gamets-fertilization-diploid_zygote
Homologous exchange the tips of their chromosomes.
If a cell with 48 chromosomes divide by meiosis, how many chromosomes are present after TelophaseII
The father of Genetics
Which is the proper symbol for a heterzygote
ww, straight hairline
If a widows peak is dominant (W) to striaght hairline (w) the homozygous recessive geneotype is what, and the corresponding phenotype is what
A baby only
The hospital loss the ID's of the three babies, (blood types AB, O,A) born one day. Which baby/babies could belong to a type AB mother and type O father.
Can be determined by mating it to a white rabbit and examine the offspring
You have a black rabbit B_. White fur is recessive in this type of rabbit. Both of the rabitts parents were black. The genotype of your rabbit is
Mitosis results in two___ cells, while meiosis results in ___ haploid cells.
When 2 parents are crossed an then the offspring from those parents are crossed the subsequent offspring are referred to as.
A homozygous recessive individual is crossed with an individual that displays a dominant phenotype in order to determine whether the second individual is heterzygous or homozygous dominant.
In human ABO blood grouping there are 4 blood types, AB, A, B, O. The blood proteins A and B are what.
Which disorder is a result of nondisjuntive of autosomal chromosome
it looks like four x's that make a square
Which depicts metaphase I of meiosis for a cell that is initially diploid with two pairs of chromosomes.
Replication of chromosomes occurs during which phase of the cell cycle
1 Purple flower, and 1 White Flower
If a heterzygous pea plant having purple flowers is crossed with a homozygous pea plant haveing white flowers, the expected outcome offspring is purple is dominant to white.
1/2 A, 1/2 B
A man with type AB blood marries a woman with type O blood. Their offspring should be.
1/2 of the daughters will be colorblind, and 1/2 the sons will be colorblind.
If a man who is colorblind, marries a woman who is a carrier for colorblindness.
The old DNA double helix unzips a bit at a time. New nucleotide bases are added to the inside of the strands. Eventualy the old double helix completley unzipsto create, two DNA double helixes each made of 1/2 old, and 1/2 new.
Which is not a type of RNA involved in transcription and translation
If the oringinal strand of DNA has the sequence of, TACGGACCTTAA, the complementary strand is.
You have transcribed the oringinal strand, ATGCCTGGAATT, so the resulting mRNA is.
The anti-codons, for the mRNA strand, AUGCCUGGAAUU, is.
The letters you would look up on a table of the genetic code to determine the amino acid sequence of the resulting protein woule be from this, UAC,GGA,CCU,UAA, would be.
The new protein that has been made from the above statement has how many amino acids associated with it, AUG, CCU, GGA, AUU.
Mendel's first law of Heredity, law of segregation
Alternate Alleles segregrate from each other in heterozygous individual and remain distinct.
Mendel's second law of Heredity
Alleles for 2 different trait assort independatley from each other.
Geneotype is the actual alleles, and phenotype is the physical trait
How does phenotype differ from genotype
RNA at the Ribosomes
Protein Synthesis, translation, is carried out by what.
DNA- RNA- PROTEINS
What is the central dogma of biology
Uracil instead of thymine
The nucleotide bases in RNA are identical to those in DNA with the exception that RNA contains.
If a mRNA codon reads UAC,it's complementary anticodon will be.
Red flowers are dominant to whtie flowers in peas. Inflated pods is crossed with a pea with white flowers and constricted pods. What will be the ratio of red inflated to red constricted to white inflated to white constricted.
1/4 Red, 1/2 Pink, 1/4 White.
Red flowering snapdragons are homozygous fro the red allel. White flowering snapdragons are homozygous for the white allele. Heterzygous plants bear pink flowers. What phenotype ratios should appear among offspring of the following cross. Pink x Pink
Which term most accuratley describes how prokaryotes carry out cell division.
Which accuratley describes how DNA replicates
Which is not a repair mechanism that cells use to fix DNA.
Disruption of both the cyclin -CDK, check points and regulation of growth factor stimulated divison is most likely to cause what
Sister chromatids align on the cells equater
Sister chromotids seperate from one another and begin migrating towards opposite ends
Chromosomes condense and become visible
Chromosomes have completly migrated to poles of the cell and the cell begins to divide.
One gene alters the effect of another gene
The Y Chromosome
The genetic sex of a human is determined by what
Mature nerve cells are incapable of cell division are most likely in.
In all sexual reproducing organisms the diploid phase of the life cycle begins at
Female wwSs, male Wwss
In humans, a widows peak is caused by a dominat allele W. A continuouss hairline is caused by a recessive allele w. Short fingers are S, and long fingers are s. A woman with a continuous hairline and short fingers, marries a man with a widow peeak and long fingers. Their children have, 1 - short fingers and widows peak, 2- has long fingers and a widows peak, 3 - long fingers and a continuous hairline.
Rule formulated by Erwin Chargaff states that
Alternating sugars and phosphates
Double stranded DNA looks a little like a ladder that has been twisted into a helix or spiral. The side supports of the ladder are.