Span 323: El SUBJUNTIVO versus el INDICATIVO en las oraciones relativas

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a) no específico [hipotético], no existente o no experimentado?  usa SUBJUNTIVO

Busco una persona que sepa rumano.
[no específico, no experimentado]

¿Había alguien en el grupo que supiera conducir un camión? [hipotético]

No hay nadie que haya vivido 200 años.
[no existente]

b) específico o experimentado?  usa INDICATIVO

Encontré a una joven que sabe rumano. [específico, experimentado]

Sí, había una persona que sabía conducir un camión. [específico, experimentado]

Hay gente que vive más de cien años. [experimentado]

LO QUE [what], COMO [as], DONDE [where]: ¿Cuál es el ANTECEDENTE?:
[what = "the thing that"; as = "the way that"; where = "the place where"]
Subjunctive

Haré lo que me pidas.
[I don't know what you'll request yet]
[I'll do whatever you ask me to]

Lo haremos como tú quieras.
[we don't know how you may wish it to be done]
[We'll do it however you like]

Comeremos donde tú recomiendes.
[we don't know where you will recommend]
[We'll eat wherever you recommend]

LO QUE [what], COMO [as], DONDE [where]: ¿Cuál es el ANTECEDENTE?:
[what = "the thing that"; as = "the way that"; where = "the place where"]
Indicative

Haré lo que me pides.
[I know what you request]
[I'll do what you ask me to]

Lo hicimos como tú querías.
[we knew how you wished it to be done]

[We'll do it as you like]

Comimos donde recomendaste.
[we know the place you recommended]
[We ate where you recommended]

**CUALQUIERA QUE [anyone who + clause]
**CUALQUIER + noun + QUE [whatever + noun + clause OR any + noun + that + clause
{meaning "it doesn't matter which}]
**COMOQUIERA QUE [however + clause]
**DONDEQUIERA QUE [wherever + clause]
Subjunctive

Cualquiera que ayude tendrá un regalo.
[the speaker doesn't know how many people may help]
[Anyone who may help will have a present]

No dejes entrar a cualquier animal que se acerque a la puerta.
[the speaker doesn't know which animals will approach, it's a future possibility]
[Don't let in any animal that comes near the door]

Comoquiera que lo haga, lo hará bien.
[no experimentado, futuro]
[However he may do it, he'll do it well]

**CUALQUIERA QUE [anyone who + clause]
**CUALQUIER + noun + QUE [whatever + noun + clause OR any + noun + that + clause
{meaning "it doesn't matter which}]
**COMOQUIERA QUE [however + clause]
**DONDEQUIERA QUE [wherever + clause]
Indicative

Cualquiera que ayudaba tenía un regalo.
[experimentado]

[Anyone who helped had a present]

Siempre deja entrar a cualquier animal que se acerca a la puerta.
[habitual  experimentado]

[He always lets in any animal that comes near the door]

Comoquiera que lo hace, lo hace bien.
[habitual  experimentado]
[However he does it, he does it well]

The fact that the main clause contains a negation doesn't imply that the subjunctive must be used in the relative clause

SUBJUNTIVO

No hay ninguna persona aquí que quiera conocer.
[that person does not exist]


No encontré un buen hotel donde puedas quedarte.
[that good hotel does not exist]

The fact that the main clause contains a negation

INDICATIVO

Esa no es la persona que quiero conocer.

[that person does exist, although I don't want to meet him/her]

Este no es el hotel donde quiero quedarme.

[the hotel does exist, although I don't want to stay there]

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