rights, duties, and obligations that acrue to a person by virtue of what they accomplished in their life.
a perspective that focuses on what men do in a society, to the exclusion of women.
rights, duties, and obligations that accrue to a person by virtue of their percentage; ascribed status is inherited.
a residential group composed of a few nuclear families, but whose membership is neither permanent nor binding.
among Plains Indians societies, men who elected to live life as women; they were recognized by their group as a third gender.
a kinship system in which relatives are traced equally on both the mother's and father's side.
part of the social organization found in many Central American communities in which a wealthy individual is named to carry out and bear the cost of important religious ceremonies throughout the year.
a regional polity in which two or more local groups are organized under a single chief (who is the head of a ranked social hierarchy). Unlike autonomous bands and villages, chiefdoms consist of several more or less permanently aligned communities or settlements.
a group of matri- or patrilineages who see themselves as descended from a (sometimes mythical) common ancestor.
Maya texts, long strips of paper, many meters in length when unfolded, made of the pounded inner bark of certain trees; these texts helped analysts interpret Maya hieroglyphics on stelae.
a form of trade in which a person or group goes to the source area of an item to proure the raw material directly or to trade for it or finished products.
an exchange system in which goods are traded outward from a source area from group to group, resulting in a steady decline in the item's abundance in archaeological sites farther from the source.
socia lsystems that contain roughly as many valued positions as there are persons capable of filling them; in egalitarian societies, all people have nearly equal access to the critical resources needed to live.
energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF)
an analytical technique that uses obsidian's trace elements to "fingerprint" an artifact and trace it to its geological source.
Material culture that was not produced locally and/or whose raw material is found locally.
The culturally prescribed values assigned to the task and status of men and women; values can vary from society to society
the culturally prescribed behavior associated with men and women; roles can vary from society to society
A cultural tradition found primarily in the Ohio River Valley and its tributaries dating from 200 bc to ad 400. Hopewell societies engaged in hunting and gather and in some horticulture of indigenous plants. They are known for their mortuary rituals, which included cahrnel houses and burial mounds; some central tombs contained exotics. They also constructed geometric earthworks as ceremonial enclosures and effigy mounds.
instrument neutron activation analysis
an analytical technique that determines the trace element composition of the clay used to make a pot and trace the clay to its geological source
socially recognized network of relationships through which individuals are related to one another by ties of descent (real or imagined) and marriage.
line of descent traced through the maternal side of the family; individuals who share a line of matrilineal descent
a unilineal descent system in which ancestry is traced through the female line.
A widespread cultural tradition across much of the eastern United States from ad 800 to 1500. Mississipian societies engaged in intensive village-based maize horticulture and constructed large, earthen platform mounds that served as substructures for temples, residences, and council buildings.
two groups of clans that perform reciprocal ceremonial obligations for one another; moieties often intermarry
individuals who share a line of patrilineal descent, a lineage based on descent traced through a line of men to a male ancestor, individuals who share a line of patrilineal descent
a cultural practice in which a newly married couple live in the groom's village of origin; it is often associated with patrilineal descent.
an analytical technique that identifies the mineral comsposition of a pot's temper and clay through microscopic observation of thin sections
a society's formal and informal institutions that regulate a population's collective arts
social systems in which a hierarchy of social status has been established, with a restricted number of valued positions available; in ranked societies, not everyone has the same access to the critical resources of life.
the remnants of shellfish collecting; some shellfish middens can become many meters thick.
the rules and structure that govern relations within a group of interacting people. societies are divided into social units (groups) within which are recognized social positions (statuses), with appropriate behavior patterns prescribed for these positions (roles).
Southeastern Ceremonial Complex
An assortment of ceremonial objects that occurs in the graves of high-status Mississippian individuals. Ritual exchange of these artifacts crosscut the boundaries of many distinctive local cultures.
the rights, duties, privileges, powers, liabilities, and immunities that accrue to a recognized and named social position.
Material added to clay to give a ceramic item strength through the firing process.