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kami

the Shinto word for that invisible sacred quality that evokes wonder and awe in us, and also for the invisible spirits throughout nature that are born of this essence

1868

Meiji restoration brought Emperor Meiji and an imperial state apparatus into power-- emphasis on worship of the emperor

Kannagara

coming to harmony with the kami; the "way or nature of the Kami--to bring our life into harmony with nature-- can be understand as Natural Religion

Misogi

standing under waterfalls for purification

Oharai

Shinto purification ceremony

Tsumi

impurity or misfortune, a quality that Shinto purification practices are designed to remove

Ahura Mazda

Zoroastrianism; the Creator God

Amesha Spenta

Zoroastrianism; six divine powers (The Good Mind, Righteousness, Absolute Power, Devotion, Perfection and Immortality) personified and worshipped as deities with shining eyes and beautiful forms (radiated from godhead) after Zarathustra's death

Allah

The one God, in Islam

Caliph

in Sunni Islam, the successor to the Prophet, Abu Bakr was elected the first one

Fatwa

In Islam, a legal opinion issued by an authority according to a particular school of law

Hajj

the holy pilgrimmage to Mecca for Muslims

Hadith

in traditional Islam, a traditional report about a reputed saying or action of the Prophet Muhammad; a body of literature that talks about words or actions of prophets

Hijab

The veiling of women for the sake of modesty

Hijrah

Muhammad's migration from Mecca to Medina; migration of Muslims

Imam

in Shi'ism, the title for the person carrying the initative tradition of the prophetic light, has both political and religious tradition

Islam

in its original meaning, complete, trusting surrender to God

Jihad

not really holy war; other meaning= struggle or striving against self or evil nature

Gabriel

brought revelation to Muhammad

Ka'bah

Adam originally worshipped here; the holiest sanctuary in Islam; Abraham and Isma'il built it together

Parsis

what Zoroastrians are called in India

Abraham

ultimate patriarch of Islam

Magi

tribe of priestly specialists in western Iran whose practices included magic and astrology; were involved in the transmission of Zoroastrianism

Night Ascension

Muhammad left and rode ino heaven and met with prophets + Allah

Madrasa

traditional Muslim educational institutions; typically teach a narrow version of Islam, ignoring its sophisticate cultural and scientific heritage and nuanced philosophy. Because some of these schools have been breeding grounds for militants, they are coming under closer scrutiny

Muezzin

one who calls the people to prayer from a high place, the slave Bilal was the first

Shahadah

The central Muslim expression of faith: "There is no god but God", and Muhammad is the messenger of God

Shari'ah

The divine law, in Islam

Shi'a

The minority branch of Islam, which feels that Muhammad's legitimate successors were "Ali and a series of Imams"

Sufism

mystical branch of Islam-- other Muslims don't think they have right ideas

Kafir/Kufr

someone who is a nonbeliever; ungratefulness to God, unbelief, atheism

Shrik

Not believing that God is one-- associating other things with divinity except the one God

Dhikr

Meditation on names of god

Saoshyant

the "end of time" Savior

Ramadan

commemorates revelation of Qur'an

Sunnah

behavior of the Prophet Muhammad, used as a model in Islamic law

Sunni

A followerof the majority branch of Islam, which feels that successors to Muhammad are to be chosen by the Islam community

Sura

A chapter of the Qur'an

Ummah

The Muslim commuity

Amrit

The water, sweetened with sugar, used in Sikh baptismal ceremonies

Dasam Granth

10th guru _________

Five K's

In Sikhism, the symbols worn by Khalsa members; unshorn hair, comb, sword, iron bracelet, drawstring underbreeches

Five Pillars

believing and professing the unity of God & messengership of Muhammad; performance of a continual round of prayers (5 times a day); charity or almsgiving (zakat); fasting; pilgrimmage to Mecca

Adi Granth

sacred scriptures of the Sikhs (first compilation); original holy book

Guru Granth Sahib

last compilation of sacred scriptures of the Sikhs; what the Adi Granth is now called

Jaap Sahib

written by Guru Gobind Singh, contain 199 verses, the second morning prayer; it names no prophets nor creates any religion, it just pays homage to God

Janam-sakhis

traditional Sikh biographies, especially stories of the life of Guru Nanak

Jap Ji

The first morning prayer of the Sikhs, written by Guru Nanak

Khalsa

body of the pure, as inspired by the Sikh Guru Gbind Singh; Sikh initiates

Gurdwara

Sikh temple

Kirtan

Devotional singing of hymns from the Guru Granh Sahib in Sikhism

Kusti

sacred thread worn around the waist-- custom for men AND women in Zoroastrianism

Langar

in Sikh tradition, a free communal meal without caste distinctions

Nam

the Holy Name of God reverberating throughout all of Creation, as repeated by Sikhs

Panth

Sikh community

Sangat

A Sikh congregation, in which all are considered equal

Udasi

An ascetic Sikh order; don't withdraw from the world but practice strict discipline and meditation while trying to serve the world

Khalistan

Sikh homeland

Zarathushtra

founding prophet of Zoroastrianism

Gathas

Zarathushtra's metric verses that are supposed to pay homage to the Supreme-only words the prophet that have been retained

Avesta

"holy texts" of Zoroastrianism

Spenta Mainyu

Zoroastrianism good

Angra Mainyu

Zoroastrianism bad

570

year Muhammad was born

Khadijah

Muhammad's wife

Dervishes

poor, mendicant mystics

diaspora

dispersed communities

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