Fiesole was founded in:
Fiesole fell under Roman control in:
3rd century BC
Conqequences of Fiesole's rebellion against Rome
entire population was enslaved, and the town was given to veterans of Rome's army
which Florence Piazza is the ancient Roman Forum?
Piazza dal Republica
Why was Florence located downhill?
By this point Rome was expanded so greatly that there was no need for protection, so the cities did not have to be located on a hill.
Renaissance debate about the foundations of Florence:
Supporters of the Florentine republic supported foundation by the Republican general Sully. Supporters of Medicci, who were slightly monarchical supported Cesaer as the founder.
Who was the father of Roman emporers:
Caesar, he gave the final boot to the republic of Rome
When was the Late Republic?
Great Imperialist Policy:
Prior to Great Imperialist Party-
history of Rome was a history without names, but this changed during the Great Imperialist Party
optimates- wanted the safety of the state: salus rei publical
populares- welfare of the people: salus populi
Marius v. Sulla
Marius was the suppression of social war, and reform of the army. Sulla was dictator for the Reconstruction of the Republic
Pompey the Great v. Julius Caesar
Pompey conquered 17 nations, Caesar Conquered Gaul and named himself Dictator for life.
Marc Antony v. Octavian (Augustus)
Marc Antony had a relationship with Egypt and Cleopatra. Octavian is the future emperor of Rome
Great General, Consul for 6 times (illegal) from 107BC onwards. Tactical reform of the army. Imperialistic state allowed Marcus to continue as Emperor.
military state in Roman terms:
political organization derived from military organization- one hundred men in the assembly and one hundred men in the army. first in line for battle were the first to speak in assemblies
Roman phalanx lines were organized according to:
social status- the wealthiest were better equiped, and thus were put at the front of the lines.
Were the poorest citizens enlisted in the army?
No, they could not afford any equipment. Called proletarians: bearers of children
Field of Mars significance
where Roman soldiers trained. Max. army amount was 500,000 soldiers
Defects of Greek Phanlanx
limited movements, weak side and back, slow moving, man power not utilized
73-70BC. Came from Thresia, East of Macedon. He went to gladiator school, but was an educated, wealthy man in his home country. THis turned into a social war, a rebellion of states who wanted desired citizenship, supplies the slaves with money, arms, and supplies.
Who put down the Spartacus Rebellion?
the Senate called on Pompeii to put down the Spartacus rebellion.
Punic Wars resulted in :
imperialism, length of campaigns grew, impoverished lower classes, growing reluctance of citizens to fulfill their military service created a painfully inadequate number of soldiers
Marius. poor citizens became paid soldiers, invested money in army.
Army reforms caused:
loyalty of soldiers to their generals, as these men paid their salaries. Complete dependence of armies on their generals, increasing loyalty and making them personal armies.
Who put down the social war?
First Civil War of the Late Republic
(84-82) BC. Civil War between Sulla and Marius. Marius died, and Sulla gave Fiesole to his soldiers
Sulla as Dictator
(82-80 BC) proscription lists killed more than 2,000 political dissidents. Has power over life and death, has power to create colonies. He retired to private life after just two years.
Who followed Sulla?
70 BC Crassus and Pompeii were Consuls
60 BC. Extralegal agreement between Pompeii, Caesar, and Crassus (the weakest link). agreement of non-agression
59-50 BC. Caesar was given the task of conquering Gaul. The Senate told him to return to Rome without his army and without a triumph
The Second Civil War
Caesar had no choice but to declare war on Pompeii, who fled to Greece, where he was beaten at Pharsakus. He then fled to Egypt and was a guest of Ptolomey and his sister Cleopatra.
river seperating Italy and France back in the day
to Rule Rome as dictator for life, until he was murdered in 44 BC
Rome Became itself. Octavian is proclaimed Caesar's heir. 43-31 BC 5 civil wars between Octavian and Marc Antony. 31 BC victory over Antony at Actium and conquest of Egypt.
43 BC. Marc Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus (weak member). This was a legal agreement recognized by the Senate
married to Antony. Antony did not come to meet Octavia in Greece, but instead stayed in Egypt with Cleopatra, inciting Octavian to declare war. Battle was won in Actium, Greece, in 31 BC.
Restoration of the Republic?
14 AD Augustus speaks of the Republic, even though the Republic is long gone. Senate awarded him the shield of Valor, for the sheild of valor.
Unofficial beginning of Empire
27 BC, Augustus was first among equals. Power would be transferred through his family when he died.
Temple of War and Peace
Doors were to tell the people if Rome was at war or peace. Closed doors occurred only twice in the past seven centuries, Augustus had the doors closed thrice. Pax Augustus
Altar of Peace
13 BC : Ara Pacis: altar was protected by an outer wall. Located next to the field of mars. moved next to Augustus's tomb for propaganda purposes
Decorations on four sides of the building
Bottom is plant. Front facade: she-wolf and shepard reconstruction. right-front panel: Aeneas' Panel- House of the Gods, two boys and a calf making a sacrifice, presumably to Aeneas, after landing in Alba.
personification of Gaia, the Earth, or of Ceres (goddess of grain). pictures of grain and animals, showed it was possible to farm again. Children, possibly twins (Rom &Remus) showed that children could be born and raised.
The long sides of the Ara Pacis
procession: Augustus is greeted by important members of each of the towns he visits. He is surrounded by his family, shows he is obsessed by succession.
Succession of Augustus
Everyone had died but Agustus's wife, Livia's son Tiberius. His brother and his nephew were dead and exiled, respectively.
Other side of Succession of Augustus
fantastic drapery. four children, the dress of the two boys is that of the Trojans.
Purpose of the Ara Pacis
to ensure that after Augustus' death, there would be no riots, as the people would already be introduced to his family, and would not question the succession.
Succession may be based upon:
the Parthenon in Greece, which Agrippa had visited just months prior
Augustus Statue of Prima Porta
8 BC. dressed in the fashion of the Roman Army. A child, Cupid, the brother of Aeneas, holds Augustus up. the model of the statue was the spear-bearer.
Augustus State of Via Labicana
Augustus in religious garb as chief general. Augustus always has a young face, no matter what his age at its comissioning.