6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
water ... NADPH
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?
True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.
ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution.
Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?
Which process produces oxygen?
The light-dependent reactions
Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?
The light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars.
What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?
True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.
Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?
They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.
What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-independent reactions.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
Regneration of RuBP
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
Select the correct molecule that is the main product of the Calvin cycle.
CO2 is fixed or incorporated into organic molecules.
What is the basic role of CO2 in photosynthesis?
The basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy.
Select the most accurate statement describing the basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded
Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule?
sugar with two, and not three, oxygen atoms
You can tell that this is an image of a DNA nucleotide and not an RNA nucleotide because you see a _____.
Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA?
1' ... 5'
In a nucleotide, the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon.
5' to 3'
Nucleic acids are assembled in the _____ direction.
thymine ... cytosine
In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.
each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand
After DNA replication is completed, _____.
The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.
replication forks and replication bubbles
The action of helicase creates _____.
DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction
Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?
RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand
The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.
An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.
What catalyzes DNA synthesis?
Primers are short sequences that allow the initiation of DNA synthesis.
Which of the following statements about DNA synthesis is true?
Which part of a deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) molecule provides the energy for DNA synthesis?
Which of the following enzymes creates a primer for DNA polymerase?
They are formed on the lagging strand of DNA.
Which of the following statements about Okazaki fragments in E. coli is true?
Which of the following enzymes is important for relieving the tension in a helix as it unwinds during DNA synthesis?
True or false? Single-stranded DNA molecules are said to be antiparallel when they are lined up next to each other but oriented in opposite directions.
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?
A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?
The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?
Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?
It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?
Which of the following is/are inputs required for photosynthesis?
The Calvin Cycle occurs in the
What are the Calvin Cycle Inputs?
ATP and NADPH + H+
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation produces (outputs)?
A researcher isolates a chloroplast and decreases the pH inside the individual thylakoids. Assuming that there is abundant light energy and CO2 and that there are no other changes to this chloroplast indicate whether the following statement if True or False.
This chloroplast will produce more G3P or glucose than a control chloroplast under the same light and CO2 conditions
Based on the previous question indicate whether the following statement is True or False.
The experimental chloroplast will produce more ATP than the control chloroplast.
Based on the preceding two questions indicate whether the following statement is True or False.
If the researcher also increased the concentration of NADPH +H+ in the stroma of the experimental chloroplast, but not the control, the experimental chloroplast would produce more G3P or glucose.
The backbone of a DNA strand is composed of
In DNA which nitrogenous base would pair with cytosine?
Hydrogen bonds must be broken during the process of DNA replication. These bonds occur between?
modified guanine nucleotide
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
a long string of adenine nucleotides
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
snRNPs and other proteins
Spliceosomes are composed of _____.
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.
Translation occurs in the _____.
5' —> 3'
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.
What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?
The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.
The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site.
True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.
A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein
Which of the following statements about mutations is false?
If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred?
One addition and one deletion mutation
Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)?
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein?
An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred?
Jacob and Monod
The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.
regulatory gene only
Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?
Regulatory proteins bind to _____.
In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.
During DNA replication the enzyme responsible for making the DNA strand is:
If the sequence of nucleotides is
what is the sequence of DNA nucleotides on the complementary strand of DNA?
During transcription the mRNA strand is produced anti-parallel to the template DNA strand.
Transcribe the DNA sequence shown below.
During the editing of the initial transcript in a eukaryote what is removed from the sequence?
In eukaryotes the mRNA must be processed prior to translation. Where does this mRNA processing occur?
A mRNA molecule contains 246 nucleotides, what is the maximum number of amino acids in the polypeptide translated from this mRNA?
Part of the coding region for a piece of DNA is shown below
what is the correct sequence of amino acids produced by this DNA? The choices are listed beginning with the first amino acid added to the polypeptide.
Translation uses the information in mRNA to guide the synthesis of
Enzyme complexes that break down protein are called _____.
regulating the transport of mRNA to the cytoplasm
The nuclear membrane's role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.
What is the function of a spliceosome?
Protein-phosphorylating enzymes' role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.
In an inducible operon, an inducer inactivates the repressor.
In an inducible operon, the repressor is synthesized in an active form.
Which statement(s) about inducible operons is/are correct?
A repressible operon is on unless a corepressor is present.
Repressible enzymes generally function in anabolic pathways.
Which statement(s) about repressible operons is/are correct?
Coordinately controlled genes in eukaryotic cells are activated by the same chemical signals.
Coordinately controlled genes in eukaryotic cells share a set of control elements.
How are genes coordinately controlled in eukaryotic cells?
Promoter, Operator and Structural Genes
A procaryotic operon consists of:
Binds to, blocks
In an inducible operon the repressor (alone) ______________ the operator and ____________ transcription.
In an inducible operon, in the presence of ________________, the structural genes will be transcribed.
Procaryotic genes are generally regulated by preventing .
One type of chromosomal level gene regulation is:
The cleavage and modification of polypeptides after translation would be considered what level of gene regulation?