susbstance containing a hydrogen ion that can be liberated or released
condition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls below 7.35
movement of ions or molecules across cell membranes, usually against a pressure gradient and with the expenditure of metabolic energy
an antibody that causes a clumping of specific antigens
condition characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the pH exceeds 7.45
ion that carries a negative electric charge
immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
foreign material capable of inducing a specific immune response
occurs when a patient donates his or her own blood for a transfusion
substance that can accept or trap a hydrogen ion synonym for alkali
substance that prevents body fluid from becoming overly acid or alkaline
ion that carries a positive electric charge
colloid osmotic pressure
pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure
act of determining the compatibility of two blood specimens
tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established
accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces
substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electric charge when dissolved in solution
passage of a fluid through a permeable membrane whose spaces do not allow certain solutes to pass; passage is from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure
force exerted by a fluid against the container wall
excess of calcium in the extracellular fluid
excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid
excess of magnesium in the extracellular fluid
excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid
above-normal serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus
having a greater concentration than the solution with which it is being compared
excess of plasma
insufficient amount of calcium in the extracellular fluid
insufficient amount of potassium in the extracellular fluid
insufficient amount of magnesium in the extracellular fluid
insufficient amount of sodium in the extracellular fluid
-below-normal serum concentration of inorganic phorphorus
-muscle pain and tenderness, muscle weakness and paresthesias, confusion, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, anorexia, dysphagia, decreased bowel sounds, possible acute respiratory failure
having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
-deficiency of blood plasma
-signs of fluid imbalance. Dry mouth, cool feet, weak limb pulse, decrease capillary refill, BP, increase pulse (to offset symptoms), serum osmo, albumin, urea.
atom that has a positive or negative charge
having about the same concentration as the solution with which it is being compared
concentration of particles in a solution, or a solution's pulling power
passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration until equilibrium is established
expression of hydrogen ion concentration and resulting acidity of a substance
substance dissolved in a solution
liquid holding a substance in a solution
determining a person's blood type
thirst mechanism, hypothalamus
Fluid intake is regulated primarily by the _______, which is controlled by the _______.
carbon dioxide levels in the blood
Regulating what is especially crucial in maintaining acid-base balance?
sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, and magnesium
What are the major cations in body fluid?
chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate
What are the major anions in the body?
nonelectrolytes, urea and glucose
What are molecules in the body that remain intact, without a charge called; and what are two examples?
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