Fundamentals of Nursing ch 40: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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acid

susbstance containing a hydrogen ion that can be liberated or released

acidosis

condition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls below 7.35

active transport

movement of ions or molecules across cell membranes, usually against a pressure gradient and with the expenditure of metabolic energy

agglutinin

an antibody that causes a clumping of specific antigens

alkalosis

condition characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the pH exceeds 7.45

anions

ion that carries a negative electric charge

antibody

immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen

antigen

foreign material capable of inducing a specific immune response

autologous transfusion

occurs when a patient donates his or her own blood for a transfusion

base

substance that can accept or trap a hydrogen ion synonym for alkali

buffer

substance that prevents body fluid from becoming overly acid or alkaline

cation

ion that carries a positive electric charge

colloid osmotic pressure

pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure

cross-matching

act of determining the compatibility of two blood specimens

diffusion

tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established

edema

accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces

electrolytes

substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electric charge when dissolved in solution

filtration

passage of a fluid through a permeable membrane whose spaces do not allow certain solutes to pass; passage is from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure

hydrostatic pressure

force exerted by a fluid against the container wall

hypercalcemia

excess of calcium in the extracellular fluid

hyperkalemia

excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid

hypermagnesemia

excess of magnesium in the extracellular fluid

hypernatremia

excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid

hyperphosphatemia

above-normal serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus

hypertonic

having a greater concentration than the solution with which it is being compared

hypervolemia

excess of plasma

hypocalcemia

insufficient amount of calcium in the extracellular fluid

hypokalemia

insufficient amount of potassium in the extracellular fluid

hypomagnesemia

insufficient amount of magnesium in the extracellular fluid

hyponatremia

insufficient amount of sodium in the extracellular fluid

hypophosphatemia

-below-normal serum concentration of inorganic phorphorus
-muscle pain and tenderness, muscle weakness and paresthesias, confusion, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, anorexia, dysphagia, decreased bowel sounds, possible acute respiratory failure

hypotonic

having a lower concentration of solute than another solution

hypovolemia

-deficiency of blood plasma
-signs of fluid imbalance. Dry mouth, cool feet, weak limb pulse, decrease capillary refill, BP, increase pulse (to offset symptoms), serum osmo, albumin, urea.

ion

atom that has a positive or negative charge

isotonic

having about the same concentration as the solution with which it is being compared

osmolarity

concentration of particles in a solution, or a solution's pulling power

osmosis

passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration until equilibrium is established

pH

expression of hydrogen ion concentration and resulting acidity of a substance

solutes

substance dissolved in a solution

solvents

liquid holding a substance in a solution

typing

determining a person's blood type

thirst mechanism, hypothalamus

Fluid intake is regulated primarily by the _______, which is controlled by the _______.

carbon dioxide levels in the blood

Regulating what is especially crucial in maintaining acid-base balance?

sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, and magnesium

What are the major cations in body fluid?

chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate

What are the major anions in the body?

nonelectrolytes, urea and glucose

What are molecules in the body that remain intact, without a charge called; and what are two examples?

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