The Westward Movement
The West was the most "American" part of America. Ralph W. Emerson said: "Europe stretches to the Alleghenies...."
America lies beyond.
Although legend portrays a glorified march west, in reality life was _. Cut off from human contact, the women were especially harmed by _
Emerson's essay "__ __" spurred the aboundement of portraits of unique, isolated figures like James Cooper's heroic __ and Herman Melville's restless __ __.
"Self-Reliance", Natty Bumppo, Captain Ahab
Even in this age of "__ ___", pioneers called upon their neighbors for logrolling and upon their governments for help in building internal improvements.
Shaping the Western Landscape
"__ __" made ideal pasture for livestock and lured thousands of American homesteaders into Kentucky
The American West felt civilization pressure. By the 1820's, American fur-trappers were setting their traplines all over the vast Rocky Mountain Region. The fur-trapping system was based on the __ (French for "meeting" system)
What was the rendezvous system?
Each summer, traders went from St. Louis to Rocky Mountain valley, made camp and waited for trappers and Indians with beaver pelts to swap for manufactured goods from the east
Trade in buffalo robes also flourished, leading to...
virtual annihilation of massive bison herds
Some historians have called this aggressive and often heedless exploitation of the West's natural bounty __ __
The spirit of nationalism fed a growing belief of the...
uniqueness of the American wilderness
The mystical attitude toward wilderness inspired a __ movement
__ , a painter and student of Native American life, was among the first Americans to advocate the preservation of nature as a deliberate national policy
In 1832 he observed the __ Indians slaughter buffalo to trade with the whites so he proposed the creation of a __. The first national park was __ __ in 1872.
Sioux, national park, Yellowstone Park
The March of the Millions
The population was __
Nugget New Orleans
"Queen of the South"
"Hog butcher for the world"
With overrapid urbanization came gross effects (smelly slums, impure water, etc). This prompted cities such as NY and Boston to...
___ and __ accounted for the increase in population
high birthrate and immigration
In the 1840's the influx of immigrants tripled and quadrupled in the 1850's. Why did they come?
The European population more than doubled in the 19th century and generated "surplus" people
Although not everyone migrated to America, many were beckoned to the "__ _ __ _ __"
Land of Freedom and Opportunity
"__ __" set home by immigrants, described the glowing terms of a rich life
How was American life good? (4)
1) low taxes 2) no compulsory military service 3) 3 meat meals a day 4) transoceanic steamboat = quick trip
What was unique about American immigrants?
They were diverse
The Emerald Isle Moves West
In the mid 1840's, __ number of people died from the potato famin
Tens of thousands fled the Land of __ to the Land of __ in the "__ __"
Famine, Plenty, Black Forties
Ireland's great export has been __
__ became the most Irish city in the world
Americans didn't like Irish immigrants. "__" took jobs as kitchen maids. "__" built canals and railraods
Biddies (Bridgets), Paddied (Patricks)
"_ __ _ __" was a sign commonly posted at factory gates and was often abbreviated to NINA
"No Irish Need Apply"
The Irish fiercely resented the _
the friendless "__ __" were forced to fend for themselves.
The __ __ _ __, a semi secret society founded in Ireland to fight landlords served in America aiding the poor
Ancient Order of Hibernians
It also helped spawn the __ __
What was the Molly Maguires?
a shadowy Irish miners' union
For humble Irish peasants, __ counted as a grand "success"
Irish were attracted to politics and expressed influence especially in NY's __ __.
They also dominated police departments in big cities where they drove the "__ __"
Because the number of Irish was increasing, politicians found it beneficial to assail the British: "__ _ __ __ _" became common.
"twisting the British Lion's tail"
The German Forty-Eighters
The bulk of German immigrants were __ but many were also liberal political refugees who, after the disheartening collapse of the democratic revolutions of 1848, decided to flee for America.
Germany's loss was America's gain: zealous German liberals such as _ __, a relentless foe of slavery and public corruption, contributed richly to the elevation of American political life.
Unlike the Irish, the Germans possessed...
a modest amount of material goods.
Most of the Germans migrated to __, notably __, where they established model farms.
Middle West, Wisconsin
Why were Germans less politically influential than the Irish?
Their strength was more widely scattered
Name three things that Germans contributed to American culture:
Conestoga wagon, Kentucky rifle, and Christmas Tree
Generally better educated than Americans, Germans supported public schools, including: __.
Kindergarten (CHECK OUT THIS SCENE!)
Americans were sometimes hostile to Germans, so Germans settled in compact "colonies" and remained aloof from the surrounding community. Accustomed to "__ __", they made made merry on the Sabbath and drank tons of "__"
"Continental Sunday", "bier" (beer)
Flare-Ups of Antiforeignism
"Native" Americans feared the immigration of all this immigrant "rabble." They feared they would take jobs, but also Irish were predominately Roman Catholic as were some Germans. Thus, convents of the Church of Rome were referred to as "__ __"
Roman Catholics began to construct an entirely separate Catholic educational system and became a powerful religious group (ranking 5th in 1840 and 1st in 1850). Older-stock Americans were alarmed by these numbers and professed that in due time the "__ __" would "establish" the Catholic Church at the expense of Protestantism and would introduce "___ __"
"alien riffraff", "popish idols"
American "nativists" rallied for political action and in 1849 formed the __ _ _ ____ ___
Order of the Star-Spangled Banner
This soon developed into the formidable American party known as the __ __ __, a name derived from its secretiveness.
Nativists agitated for... (3)
1) restrictions on immigration and naturalization 2) for laws authorizing the deportation of alien paupers 3)promoted lurid literature of exposure 4)
Often this literature was pure fiction. Maria Monk's __ __ in 1836, sold over 300,000 copies.
Sometimes there was mass violence, the most frightful flare-up occurring in 1844 in __ where Irish Catholics fought back against the threats of the nativists
The "City of Brotherly Love" did not quiet down until...
two Catholic churches had been burned and 13 citizens had been killed and 50 wounded
Why were violent outbursts not THAT common?
America's economy was robust
In the 1750's, British inventors perfected machines for the mass production of __. This set off the __ __.
textiles, Industrial Revolution
The factory system spread from Great Britain, "__ __ __", to other lands
"the world's workshop"
Why was America so slow in embracing the Industrial Revolution?
1) Land was cheap in America thus labor for machines was scarce 2) there wasn't much money for investment 3) US had difficulty making high quality goods at cheap cost to compete with Euro products 4) British enjoyed a monopoly on te4xtile machinery
Who founded the Amish?
Whitney Ends the Fiber Famine
Samuel Slater has been acclaimed the "__ _ _ ___ __"
Father of the Factory System
He worked in GB and after memorizing the plans for machinery, he fled to America where he won the backing of __ __.
What did Slater do?
he put into operation in 1791 the first efficient American machinery for spinning cotton thread
In 1793, Eli Whitney built the __ __.
Factories at first flourish most actively in __ __.
Why was new England favored as an industrial center?
1) stony soil made farming difficult and manufacturing attractive 2) a dense population provided labor and accessible markets 3) shipping brought in capital and snug seaports made easy the import of raw materials and export of finished products 4) rapid rivers, notably the Merrimack, provided abundant water power for machines
Marvels in Manuafcturing
During the time of the embargo act and such, wearing American-made products was popular practice: "__ __" and "__ __" were popular slogans
"Buy American," "Wear American"
The manufacturing boomlet broke abruptly with the peace of __ in 1815
At this time, British shipped in surplus goods at super low prices prompting Congress to pass the protective __ _ __ , one of the earliest political contests to control the shape of the economy.
Tariff of 1816
Besides textiles, manufacturing embraced the production of __.
__ __ made a significant contribution in the production of muskets and proposed the principle of interchangeable parts.
The principle of interchangeable parts gave rise to other innovations including __'s fabled revolver and was the basis of modern mass production.
The sewing machine was invented in 1846 by __ __ and perfected by __ __.
Elias Howe, Isaac Singer
Although 28,000 patents were registered in the decade ending 1860, the clerk of the __ __ resigned in despair.
what was limited liability?
aided the concentration of capital by permitting the individual investor, in cases of legal claims of bankruptcy, to risk no more than his own share of the corporations' stock.
Fifteen Boston families formed one of the earliest investment capital companies, the __ __. They eventually dominated the textile, railroad, insurance, and banking business of Massachusetts.
Laws of "__ ___" first passed in NY in 1848 meant that businessmen could create corporations without applying for individual charters from the legislature.
__'s telegraph was among the inventions that tightened the sinews of an increasingly complex business world.
Samuel F.B. Morse's
In 1844 Morse strung a wire forty miles form Washington to Baltimore and tapped out the historic message, "__ __ __ __"
"What hath God wrought?"
the fabled London World's Fair in 1851. People gathered in the __ __ to see McCormick's reaper, Morse's telegraph, colt's firearms, and Charles Goodyear's rubber goods.
Great Exhibition, Crystal Palace
Workers and Wage Slaves
The Industrial Revolution made working much less personal. People started working in stuffy factories in "__ __."
Around these "spindle cities", slumlike hovels of the "__ __" tended to cluster.
Describe the early factory system
long hours, low wages, bad meals, unsanitary buildings, not allowed to form labor unions
Especially vulnerable to exploitation were __ workers. In 1820, a large portion of the nation's industrial toilers were under the age of __.
Many kids were mentally blighted, emotionally starved, physically stunted, and brutally whipped in special "__ __"
In __'s mill of 1791, the first machine tenders were seven boys and two girls all under the age of 12
By contrast, the lot of most adult wage workers __ in the 1820's and 1830's: many states granted laboring men the right to vote.
Eventually, many workers gave their political loyalty to the ___ party of __ __, whose attack on the Bank of the US and against all form of "privelege" reflected their anxiety about the emergy capitalist economy.
Democratic party, Andrew Jackson
In addition to goals as the 10 hour work day, higher wages, and better working condition, the also demanded ___ for their children and an end to the practice of imprisonment for __.
public education, debt.
Employers, hating the rise of "__", fought against the ten hour workday by arguing that reduced hours would...
"rabble". Lessen production, increase costs, and demoralize workers
In 1840, President __ __ established the ten-hour day for fedreal employees on public works.
Laborers finally realized that their strongest weapon was to.... many strikes erupted in the 1830s and 1840s. Workers usually lost strikes, for the employer could import strike-breakers, often called "__" or "__"
lay down their weapons. "scabs," "rafs"
labor's early and painful efforts at organization had netted some ___ number of trade unionists by 1830
As unemployment spread, union membership shriveled, ye toilers won a rpmising legal victory in 1842 in the case of ___ v. __ that stated labor unions were not illegal conspiracies, provided that their methods were "___ and __"
Commonwealth v. Hunt, "honorable and peaceful"
Women and the Economy
What did factory jobs promise to women?
greater economic independence and the means to buy manufactured products of the new market economy
"__ __" usually worked 6 days a week from "__ to __".
"Facotry g. Opportunities for women to tirls", "from dark to dark"
factory jobs of any kind were still unusal for women to be economically self-supporting were scarce and consisted mainly of __ and __ service, espeically __.
nursing and domestic service. Teaching
The dedicated __ __, daugher of a preacher and sister of __, urged women to ener the teaching profession.
Catharine Brreecher, Harriet Breecher Stowe
She eventually succeeded beyong her dreams as men left teaching for other lines of work and school teaching became a thorougly "__" occupation. Other work "opportunities" for women beckone in the __ service.
"feminized," household service.
About _ % of white women were working for pay outside the houes in 1850 and __% had been employed at some time prior to marriage
Upon marriage, women most often left their jobs. In the home, women were enshrined in a __ of __.
cult of domesticity
what was the cult of domesticity?
a widespread cultural creed that glorified the customary functions of the homemaker
Women's changing roles and the spreading I.R. brough important changes to the life of the nineteenth century home: the traditional "__'s __"
What were these changes?
1) love, not arrangement,, determined choice of spouse (parents still had veto power) 2) families were more closely knit and affectionate 3) families grew smaller
the "__ __", or number of births among wmen from 14-45 dropped sharply among white women in the years after the I.R.
women's assertive role in having fewer children has been called "__ __" because it signified the growing power and independence of women even while they ramin wrapped in the "cult of domesticity"
Although American families cared more for their children, they weren't necessarily spoiled. For example, when __'s daughter didn't do her homework, she sent her daughter to her room and gave her "only ...."
Harriet Breecher Stow, "only bread and water in her own apartment"
In the little republic of family, good citizens were raised to ..
be indpendent individuals who could make their own decisions on the basis of internalized moral standards
what were the outilnes of the "modern" family?
1)small, affectionate, and child-centered. 2) Provided a special arena for the talents of women.
Western Famers Reap a Revolution in the Fields
___ was the nation's breadbasket
The trans-Allegheny region (espeically the Ohio-Indiana tier)
Corn was amazingly versatile. it could be fed to hogs ("_____") or distilled into liquor ("_____").
"corn on the hoof," "corn in the bottle"
So many hogs were btuchered or shipped at cincinnati that the city was known as the "__" of the West.
Most western produce was at first floated down the __-__ River System, but western farmers wanted profits so they sought ways to bring more land into cultivation
ohio-Mississippi River system
Ingenious inventors helped these western famers. The steel plow, invented by __, solved the problem of breaking the stubborn soil.
___ invented a mechanical mower-reaper called the __ __.
Cyrus mcCormick. McCormick Reaper
Substinance farming gave way to food production for moth domestic and foreign markets as large scale ("___"), specialized, cash-crop agriculture came to dominate te trans-Allgheny west.
This huge cultivation of crops was bad because the farmer-business people were havesting a larger crop than the south, so they looked to..
highways and steamboats
improvment in transportation came when a private company completed the __ __ in Pennsylvania in the 1790's.
As drivers appraoched the tollgate, they were confronted wiht a barrier of sharp pikes, hence the term __
What were results of the Lancaster Turnpike? (4)
1)returned 15% dividents to stockholders 2) attracted trade to Philadelphia 3) touched off a turnpike building boom that lasted 20 years 4) stimulated western development
What were obstacles against road building? (2)
1) states' righters who opposed federal aid to local projects 2) eastern states protested against being bled of their populations
Westerners scored a triumph in 1811 when the federal government started construction of the __ __, also known as the __ __.
National Road, Cumberland Road
The road reached from Cumberland, maryland to __ __ which was 591 miles to the west.
Later, extensions brought it from Baltimore to __
The steamboat craze was touched off by an ambitious painter-engineer named __ __.
What did he do?
installed a powerful steam engine in a vessel that was known as the Clermont
Althought the posterity called the veesel the __, the public called in "__ __"
Clermont, Fulton's Folly
There were many steamboat races, which were pretty dangerous. When the steamer __ blew up in April 1865, 1700 people died.
"Clinton's Big Ditch" in New York
A canal-cutting craze paralleled the boom in turnpikes and steamboats. New Yorkers dug the __ __, linking the Great Lakes with the Huson River
They were blessed with the leadership of __ __ whose project was called "__ __ __" or "__ __"
Governor DeWitt Clinton, "Clinton's Big Ditch," "Governor's Gutter"
Clinton emptied a cask of water from the lake to symbolize the "__ __ _ __"
"the marriage of the waters"
what were economic results of the Erie Canal?
value of land increased, new cities blossomed, industry in the state boomed, European immigrants were attracted to farming, steamships plied the Great lakes, price of potatoes decreased by 50%, dispirited New England farmers abandoned their rocky holdings
The iron Horse
what was the most significant contribution to the development of such an economy?
Railraod pioneers had to overcome several obstacles...
opposition from canal backers, considered a public menace ("miniature hells"), bad brakes, huge differeneces in gauge
Eventually gauges were standardized, better brakes were made, safety devices adopted, and the Pullman "_ __" was introduced in 1859.
Cables, Clippers, and Pony Riders
A crucial development in transportation and communication came in 1858, when Cyrus Field, called the "__ __ __" organized a joint Anglo-American-Canadian venture to strech a cable under the deep North Atlantic waters from New Foundland to Ireland
"the greatest wire-puller in history"
A pioneer American steamer, the __, crept across the Atlantic in 1819, but it used sail most of the time and was pursued for a day by a british captain who thougt it afire.
in the 1840s and 1850s, a golden age dawned for American shipping. Yankee naval yards, notably __'s at boston began to send down the ways sleek new craft called __ __.
Donald mcKay's, clipper ships
the hour of glory fo rthe clipper was brief: on the eve of the Civil War, the British won the world race for maritime ascendacy with their iron tramp steamers: "__"
By 1858, horse-drawn stagecoaches, immortalized by Mark twain's "__ __" were common
Even more dramatic wa the _ __, established in 1860 to carry mail from St. Joseph missouri to Sacramento, California
the express riders were unhorsed by Samuel Morse's "__ __" which tapped messages to California in 1861.
The transport Web Binds the Union
the desire of the East to tap the west stimulated the ___ __.
ditch diggers would offset the "natural" flow of trade on the interiorrivers by laying down an impressive grid of "__ __"
___ became the seaboard queen of th nation
New York city
Each region now specialized in a particlar type of economic activity: The south raised __, the west rew __, and the easty made __
cotton, grain and livestock, machines and textiles
What were political and military implications of this pattern?
southerners were convined that all staes connected to the Mississippi would secede with them, and southern rebels would have to fight Northern armies AND the tight bonds of an intedpendent continental army.
What was the Market revolution?
transformed a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshiops into a national network of industry and commerce
Under __, the Supreme court vigorously protected contract rights
What happened when the proprietors of Boston's Charles River Bridge dued the ownders of the new Warren Bridge fro unconstitutionally violating their original contract?
Roger taney sided with the newcomers
who was the new chief justice?
Roger B. taney
What did he say?
the "rights of the community" outweighted any exclusive corporate rights
What did his decision do?
opened new entrepreneurial channels and encouragged greater competition
What else increased competition?
the passage of more liberal state incorporation laws grantin ginvestors the benefit of "limited liability" if their companies went bankrupt
Revolutionary advances in manufacturing and transportation brough increased prosperity to all Americans but also..
widened the gulf between the rich and the poor
___, a fur-trader and real estate speculator, left an estate of $30 million on his death
__ bred the greatest extremes of economic inequality
many unskilled workers came to make up floating mass of "__"
What was the reality about "social mobility"
it was rare, but better than in europe
general prosperity was good because..
it helped decrease potential class conflict that might otherwise have exploded