Bernoulli's Principle state: "The internalpressure of a fluid ______at points where the speed of the fluid ______."
When air is forced to travel at a faster speed across the top of a wing versus the bottom, this will result in _______ the wing.
lower pressure above
Which statement best expresses Newton'sThird Law of Motion?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
The three principle airfoils on an aircraft that produce lift are _________.
wing, propeller,and horizontal tail surfaces
An imaginary straight line drawn from the leading edge to the trailing edge of a cross section of an airfoil is called the _______.
The direction of the relative wind is determined by the ______.
flight path of the aircraft
What force in flight counteracts lift?
What is used to determine the angle of attack?
Relative wind and chord line
Actual atmospheric pressure at a given time and place does not depend on which of the following?
For an aircraft to maintain a constant airspeed and maintain straight level flight, what must be in balance?
Thrust & Drag; Lift & Weight
Which are the primary control surfaces on an airplane?
Rudder, ailerons, and elevator
Movement around the vertical axis is controlled by the ______.
Movement around the longitudinal axis is called _____.
What action would cause a change in pitch?
Pushing/pulling the control yoke
Which control allows the pilot to relieve manual pressure on the primary controls?
At approximately what angle of attack will air no longer flow smoothly over the wing's upper surface?
The most hazardous aspect of structural icing is ______.
What type of icing is an aircraft likely to encounter when flying in temperatures above freezing?
The forces that are acting on a helicopter in flight are lift, thrust, _____, and _______.
What term defines a maneuver in which a helicopter is in motionless flight over a reference point, and maintaining a constant heading and altitude?
What is the basic purpose of the autorotation maneuver in a helicopter?
Provide a controlled landing when the engine is no longer supplying power
The pitch (angle of attack) of a helicopter rotor blade is controlled by the _______.
The definition of "wake turbulence" includes a number of phenomenon affecting flight safety. Which of the four choices are not included in the definition?
Vortices are generated at the moment an aircraft begins to _______.
leave the ground
Which three aircraft characteristics represent the greatest generated wake turbulence?
Heavy, clean, slow
What factor has the greatest impact on waketurbulence?
With zero wind, vortices near the ground will travel laterally at a speed of ______ knots.
2 to 3
Vortices from large aircraft will sink at a rate of approximately ______ to ______ feet per minute.
The ability of an aircraft to counteract the effects of induced roll is based on the _______ and _______ of the aircraft/
wingspan; counter control capabilities
A helicopter generates wingtip vortices when ________.
in forward flight
What are the three categories of aircraft?
Category I, Category II, and Category 3
A small business jet aircraft will fall into which aircraft category?
Helicopters fall into which aircraft category?
What are the weight classes of aircraft?
Small, Large, Heavy
Most CAT I aircraft will generally operate within which speed range?
What are the three basic types of engines found on aircraft today?
Reciprocating, turboprop, and turbojet
What is not one of the three basic wing placements found on aircraft?
Generally, what are the three basic types of landing gear?
Tricycle gear, conventional gear, and tandem gear
What is a prominent identification feature of the BE35?
What is a prominent identification feature of most Cesnas?
An aircraft weighing 300,000 pounds will fall into the ______ weight class.
An aircraft with a certified takeoff weight of _______ pounds or less will fall into the small weight class.
Straight-wing, swept-wing, and _________ are the three basic types of wing configuration.
The primary source of lift on an airfoil is created by a differential in ________.
The statement, "the internal pressure of a fluid decreases at points where the speed of the fluid increases" is a part of ________.
The line between the leading edge and the trailing edge of an airfoil is the ___________.
The _________ is the acute angle formed between the chord line of an airfoil and the direction of the air striking the airfoil (relative wind).
angle of attack
_________ is the curvature of the airfoil from the leading edge to the trailing edge.
What are the 2 main types of propellers?
Fixed pitch and variable-pitch/constant-speed
What are the three principle airfoils?
wing, propeller,and horizontal tail surfaces
What is the curvature of the airfoil from the leading edge to the trailing edge?
Rotation around the longitudinal axis is called ________.
Rotation around the lateral axis is called ________.
Rotation around the vertical axis is called ________.
What are the 4 atmospheric properties?
temperature, pressure, water vapor, and altitude
Which two movements are controlled by the control yoke?
Roll & Pitch
What are the 3 primary control surfaces on an airplane?
Ailerons, rudder, and elevators
The extention of flaps causes an increase in _________.
The greatest wake turbulence is associated with what aircraft configuration?
Heavy, clean, slow
: If you have an aircraft on approach to an airport and a similar aircraft cruising during en route flight, which would create a greater wake turbulence effect?
An aircraft on approach to the airport
Of speed, configuration, and weight, which one has the greatest impact on wake turbulence?
What is the name for the turbulent phenomenon created by aircraft passing through the atmosphere?
The circular patterns created by wake turbulence are often known as what?
Wing tip vortices
For fixed-wing aircraft, vortices begin at what stage of flight?
At rotation/when it leaves the ground
When do fixed-wing aircraft stop generating vortices?
When observing an aircraft from behind, the circulation of vortices off the right wingtip is _______ and _______ off the left wingtip.
Vortices from large aircraft will sink approximately 300 feet to 500 feet per minute and level off approximately ______ feet below the flight path.
500 to 1,000
With no wind, vortices within 100 feet to 200 feet of the ground will move ________ knots laterally across the ground.
2 to 3
For landing aircraft, crosswinds of 1 to 5 knots tend to ________ the lateral movement of one vortex while ________ the movement of the other.
Hazardous conditions occur when the induced roll exceeds the level of ______.
roll controll of the aircraft
Counter control is most effective and roll is minimal when the wingspan and the ailerons extend beyond the ________ of the vortex.
A hovering helicopter creates a downwash from its main rotors that can travel up to how far?
3 times the rotor diameter
What must a helicopter be doing in order to generate wingtip vortices?
It must be in forward flight
Why is the controller not responsible for anticipating the existence or effects of wake turbulence?
Because it is unpredictable
Wake turbulence has the greatest impact on ATC in the areas of _______.
increase separation and traffic management delays
What is the general speed range for CAT II aircraft?
160 - 250 knots
What is the general speed range for CAT I aircraft?
What is the general speed range for CAT III aircraft?
250 - 500 knots
What weight class do CAT I & CAT II aircraft fall in?
What is the general climb rate for CAT I aircraft?
1,000 ft/min or less
What is the general climb rate for CAT II aircraft?
1,000 - 2,000 ft/min
What is the general climb rate for CAT III aircraft?
2,000 - 4,000 ft/min
What category do helicopters fall under?
What category do turbojet engine aircraft fall under?
A twin-engine, turboprop aircraft weighing 12,500 pounds or less will fall under which category?
An aircraft capable of 300,000 pounds of takeoff weight, but which currently only has a takeoff weight of 225,000 pounds, would fall into what weight class?
An aircraft in the small weight class has a maximum certified takeoff weight of _______ pounds or less.
41,000 or less
If an aircraft has a 250,000 pound maximum certified takeoff weight, what would its weight class be?
Designators may have as many as ________ characters, but no less than ________.
True/False: An aircraft designator must consist of letters only.
The first character in an aircraft designation must be a/an ________.
What are the 9 aircraft identification features?
Size, Engine location and number, Engine type, Wing placement, Wing configuration, Tail configuration, Windows, Fuselage shape, and Landing Gear
What are the 3 basic wing placements?
High-wing, Mid-wing, Low-wing
What are the 3 basic wing configurations?
Straight-wing, Swept-wing, Delta-wing
What are the 6 basic tail configurations?
Conventional tail, Forward slant vertical stabilizer, Horizontal stabilizer above fuselage, "T"-tail (swept or straight), "V"-tail, "Twin Boom" tail
What are two types of engines having propellers?
Reciprocating and turboprop
Turbojet engines are limited to what weight class of aircraft?
Can be found on ALL weight classes
What are the five basic aircraft window shapes?
Oval, circle, bubble canopy, square, tear drop