C C 306M Exam 4

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281 terms

syncope

fainting
Gr. cutting off of pneuma to the brain

sciatica

injury or pressure on sciatic nerve

coma

unresponsive to stimuli
Gr. deep sleep

vertigo

sensation that the room is spinning
Gr. vert (turn)
turning around

combining form for sensation

esthesi/o
esth/o
esthet/o

parasthesia

abnormal sensation

anasthesia

without sensation

allesthesia

different (allo) sensation
sensation on the opposite side of the body than where it should be percieved

kinesthetic

pertaining to the sensation of movement

algesthesia

sensation of pain
alg/o (pain)

telesthesia

feeling something at a distance
distance (tele)
like ESP

combining form for knowing

gnos/o

agnosia

unable to process

atopognosia

top/o (place)
if you are touched you don't know where you are being touched (ex: touched on arm, don't know if it is on shoulder, back, etc.)

astereognosis

stere/o (solid)
literally: without knowing somethings solid
medical: you can feel that you are touching something, but you can't feel it's shape. ex: you can't differentiate two different solid objects in your hand by touch alone

suffix for memory

-mnesia, -mnesis

hypermnesia

acute/excessive memory (like Sheldon)

hypomnesia

less than normal memory

cryoptomnesia

'hidden memory'
subconscious memory

paramnesia

abnormal memory
ex: you remember something that didn't really happen

amnesia

lack of memory
Lethe (synonym)-from Gr myth

Gr. Goddess of memory

Mnemosyne

Gr. Goddess Lethe

goddess of forgetfulness; also a river in the underworld-if you die you drink of the river and forget everything that happened in your life

aphasia

lack of speech

dysarthria

a condition of difficult articulation
arther/o can also mean articulation as in speech

dysphasia

difficult speech; usually associated with stroke/higher brain function

lex/o

word or phrase

bradylexia

slow reading

dyslexia

difficulty reading

log/o

word

logorrhea

'discharge of words'
talking without stop
usually due to drugs/psychosis

phas/o

speech

sensory aphasia

inability to process the hearing of speech
AKA receptive aphasia; will be different depending on which brain area is affected

lal/o

speech

laloplegia

'paralysis of speech'
usually a paralysis of the vocal chords

-paresis

slight paralysis

oroparesis

slight paralysis of the mouth

-plegia

paralysis
Gr. plege (to strike/stroke)

glossoplegia

complete paralysis of the tongue

palsy

paralysis

Bell's palsy

paralysis of the facial nerve; ex: drooping of face

hemiparesis

incomplete paralysis of half of the body

hemiplegia

complete paralysis of half of the body; usually caused by stroke (note: if right side brain stroke-left side paralysis)

paraplegia

paralysis of two limbs (legs); associated with spinal cord injuries
L2 and above = paralysis; below = sensory neurons

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four limbs

diplegia

paralysis of two limbs

monoplegia

paralysis of one limb

triplegia

paralysis of three limbs

cerebral palsy

more common cause of diplegia, monopledia, triplegia
palsy-paralysis
cerebral-associated with the cerebrum
usually congenital, non-progressive, and involves lesions (lesional-why there are weird paralyses)

concussion etymology

L. concussus (shaken violently)

emesis

vomiting

nausea history

comes from ships, seasickness (disease of sailors)

hematoma

tumor formed by blood; swelling of blood in an area

epidural hematoma

hematoma upon the derma

subdural hematoma

hematoma below the derma; usually associated with vessels (boxers that get knocked out, say they have no problems, then die the next day)

cephalalgia

head ache

grand mal seizure

'great bad'
violent, full body thrashing, etc.

tonic-clonic seizure

ton/o-tension
clon/o-disarray
full body violent tension, then disarray, etc.

absence seizure

fading out

petit mal

'little bad'
not so bad

epilepsy history

Gr. epilepsia (to seize upon)
people thought that when a seizure occurred the Gods were attacking them

Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease'

5th B.C.; has to do with disorders of seizure like movements
states that the disease is not caused by the gods, but by 'phlegm' (humor)
he believes that in utero babies lose phlegm, but if you don't get rid of it you get seizures
seizure - when cold phlegm hits warm blood, you get a violent seizure

Huntington's Chorea

Gr. choreia (dance)
ballistic type of movement

Chorea and Gr. chorus

Gr. chorus in dramas (plays) come out and dance/sing
chorus connects to audience (asks questions, explains things to the audience)

athetosis

Gr. athetos (unfixed, changeable)
writhing, snakelike movement

apraxia

Gr. praxis (action)
inability to perform an action

bradykinesia

Gr. kinesis (movement)
slow movement

akathisia

Gr. kathisis (sitting)
restless legs-person cannot keep their legs still while sitting

ataxia

Gr. taxis (order/coordination)
lack of coordinated movement

glioma

glio (glue)
tumor of the glia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells)

meningioma

tumor of the membranes (dura mater, thia mater, etc.)

dementia

L. de +mens, mentis
collection of disease of higher brain function

literal definition myelomeningocele

pouching or hernia of the spinal cord membrane

spina bifida occulta

where the back of your spinus processes are not there on one or two levels
no big deal

meningocele

pouching of the membrane

myelomeningocele

pouching of membrane and spinal cord

poliomyelitis

think gray matter, cell bodies

acute anterior poliomyelitis

acute, front portion of spinal cord, inflammation of gray matter of spinal cord

polioencephalomeningomyelitis

inflammation of gray matter of brain, meninges, and spinal cord

polio

means GRAY

poliosis

gray hair

Galen and psychiatry

Galen thought that psychiatry should be brought into the realm of medicine, as the soul affects the body

psyche

lovesickness, rage

melancholia lycanthropia

lycanthropia = werewolf
medicine: lycanthropia is a condition in which humans acted animal like (wolf-like)
melancholia: black-bile (Excessive black bile lead to this mental illness)

melancholia

black-bile
too much led to mental illness (according to antiquity)

four temperaments

choleric
melancholic
phlegmatic
sanguine

temperamentum

L. mixture

choleric

too much yellow bile
now: associated with people easily agitated

melancholic

black-bile
now: depressed

phlegmatic

lots of phlegm
lethargic

sanguine

hot blood

hypochondriasis

under-cartilage
associated with too much black bile (mental illness)
excessively focused on being sick

sthen/o

strength

angiosthenia

strength (pressure) in the vessel

hypersthenic

excessively strong

myasthenia gravis

muscle weakness

the anatomy of melancholy

book describing mental illness, melancholy bc all mental illness is associated with black bile
written by Robert Burton

mental illness and astrology

the alignment of the stars can change people

anhedonia

lack of pleasure

apathy

lack of emotion

euphoria

excessive happiness; elation
phor-to bear

dysthymia

thym/o-emotion
condition of bad emotion
low level depression that lasts over 2 years

thym/o

soul, seat of emotion

hedon/o

pleasure

path/o

suffering, passion, emotion

delusion

L. deludere
to decieve

delirium

L. de (away from)+lira (furrow) [off the road]
deviant behavior; temporary being out of your mind

hallucination

L. halucinari
to wander in mind, to dream

dementia

de (out of)+mens (mind) nominative
mentis = genitive
progressive memory condition

psych/o

Gr. psyche-soul
mind

psychosis

catatonic state, delusional, hallucinations, etc.

phren/o

diaphragm or ming
Gr. phren-midriff
believed midriff was seat of emotion and thought

schizophrenia

schizo-split
phrenia-mind

ment/a

L. mens-thought

no/o

Gr. nous-intellect
today: mind

paranoia

para-abnormal
no-mind
a-condition

neur/o

Gr. neuron, nerve, sinew

neurosis

neuro-nervous system
is-condition of

nar/o

sleep, stupor

narcotic

medication that puts you in a stupor

narcolepsy

sleep seizure
lepdy-seizure

somn/o

sleep

somnambulism

sleep walking

hypn/o

hypnosis, sleep, sleep inducing

hypnopompic

pompic-pompeii: procession
dream just when you're exiting sleep

hypnagogic

gogic-to lead into
having visions before you go into deep sleep

hypnos

god of deep sleep (pleasant)

thanatos

god of a good death

oneiroi

dreams; little creatures that fly out from erabus and come into our minds and form our dreams
under the guidance of morpheus

thanat/o

death as a concept

oneir/o

dreams

oneiric medicine

ancient medical diagnosis: dr. in antiquity could use dreams to determine what was wrong with the pt (soul is active when you're asleep)
medicine of dreams
think Freud; greek myths used to describe mental conditions (world-view/consciousness being revealed)

asclepius

stick with snake (emblem of medicine-rod of asclepius)
god of medicine
they would go to his temple, fall asleep, and he would either heal you or tell you in a dream what to do to get better

kadusis

heralds wand, what hermes carries
its two snakes and wings
we screwed up the medical symbol

mania

symptom

manic depression

mania state and depressed state

ideation

pervasive thought

maenad

worshiper of dionysus
went into excited, agitated state (mania)

pentheus

cousin of dionysus, says we aren't going to worship dionysus bc hes a new god
dionysus turns pentheus into an animal, his mother and sisters tear him limb from limb

-mania

excessive devotion to something

hirsutism

L. hirsutus
covered with hair, rough shaggy

adrenal virilism

L. virilis-of a man, manly, male

exophthalamos/exophthalamus

eye that protrudes out of the body
caused by hyperthyroidism (grave's disease)

Cushing's syndrome

hyperadrenocorticism
condition of excessive adrenocortotropin (stimulation of the adrenal cortex)

Grave's disease

hyperthyroidism

Hyperinsulinism

associated with pancreas; over production of insulin

herodotus

natron and mummification, uroscopy

what is a fundamental sign which distinguishes diabetes mellitus (DM) from diabetes insipidus (DI)

taste (of urine)

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