Environmental Science Exam II

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Individuals within a population each have a unique combination of traits due to:

Genetic Variation

Symbiosis is the result of coevolution. Coevolution is the result of the interdependent evolution of:

two interacting species

Which of the following is an area where primary succession is likely to occur?

A sand dune along a lakeshore

Which of the following organisms would be members of a pioneer community on bare rock?

lichens

Secondary succession:

occurs in areas lacking vegetation where soil is present

Keystone species:

are usually not the most abundant species in the ecosystem

An organism's role, or lifestyle, within the structure of an ecosystem is its:

ecological niche

An ecological description of a species typically includes:

whether it is a producer, consumer, or decomposer, predator and/or prey, the kinds of symbiotic associations it forms, what species it competes with

Which of the following characterizes a symbiotic relationship?

a close interrelationship where both species benefit, a close inter- relationship where one species benefits and the other is not affected, a close interrelationship where one species benefits and the other is adversely affected, an intimate relationship between members of two or more species

Mycorrhizae help plants:

to absorb essential nutrient minerals

Predation can be defined as:

one organism consuming another organism, which may be a plant or animal

Competition occurs when:

two or more species attempt to use an essential common resource

All of the following are examples of mutualism except:

trees and epiphytes

The relationship between a tick and a dog is an example of:

parasitism

Which of the following statements is true?

Predation exerts a selective force on the prey, favoring characteristics that reduce the probability of capture.

Which of the following is not an adaptation to improve the efficiency of prey capture?

warning coloration

The shape of the bill on the bird in the figure below is most likely the result of:

coevolution & natural selection

The realized niche for the green anole differs from its fundamental niche because of:

competition

Which of the following terms encompasses all of the other terms?

coevolution

The associated figure provides support for which of the following processes?

competitive exclusion

Resource partitioning can be accomplished through all of the following except:

increasing niche overlap

Based on the figure below, as the structural complexity of the vegetation decreases, species richness

decreases

The number of species in a community can depend on:

the geological history of the region
the abundance of ecological niches
the stability of the ecosystem
the productivity of the ecosystem

The reason(s) that tropical regions of the world have such high biodiversity is:

because there are many ecological because they have a high productivity because they are geologically stable

Which of the following is an example of coevolution?

flowering plants and their pollinators

Which of the following is the best example of primary succession?

a forest develops on the edge of a retreating glacier

The potential ecological niche of an organism is its _______, while the niche an organism actually occupies is its ________.

fundamental niche; realized niche

Which term defines competition between species?

interspecific competition

Green anoles were forced out of their established habitat of trees, plants, walls and fences by invasive brown anoles. The green anoles then had to find new habitats in wetlands and tree crowns. This example illustrates the concepts of:

both competition and realized niche

Biogeochemical cycles:

describe the movement of water and other materials through abiotic and biotic interactions

Which of the following is not one of the biogeochemical cycles considered of particular importance for organisms?

hydrogen

In the carbon cycle, carbon can be found in:

the atmosphere
carbon dioxide and coal
limestone, animals, and plants
oil, bicarbonate, and sugar

The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living organisms to the atmosphere is called:

cellular respiration

Which of the following is not an example of a fossil fuel?

Wood

The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is important because nitrogen:

is an essential part of biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (DNA)

Nitrogen fixation is:

the conversion of gaseous nitrogen into an organism friendly form (ammonia (NH3)

Nitrogen gas accounts for what percentage of the atmosphere?

78%

Which of the following processes plays an important role in the phosphorus cycle?

erosion

Solar radiation:

is the product of a massive nuclear fusion reaction, essential for photosynthesis, captured by plants & may become energy available from fossil fuels, powers the hydrologic and other biochemical cycles

Which of the following surfaces has the highest albedo?

Glaciers

Stratospheric ozone is important because it:

absorbs UV radiation

The ocean conveyor belt affects:

regional & possibly global climate

The Coriolis effect is associated with:

the earth's rotation

Gyres are:

circular ocean currents

El Niño—Southern Oscillation events:

alter both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns

Which of the following does not influence climate?

topography, distance from the ocean, latitude, vegetation

Precipitation:

has a profound effect on the distribution of organisms

Which of the following has the most concentrated energy and highest destructive potential?

tornadoes

Rain shadow describes the;

dry land on the side of the mountains away from the prevailing wind

Which of the following does not affect ocean currents?

marine organisms

The phosphorus cycle differs from the carbon cycle in that:

the atmosphere does not contribute to the phosphorus cycle

Which of the following processes is not involved in the hydrologic cycle?

fixation

El Niño and La Niña are similar in that both events:

affect weather patterns

The atmosphere consists of five concentric layers. What is the order of these layers starting at the Earth's surface?

troposhere, stratosphere,mesosphere, thermosphere,exosphere

Weather is a term that refers to the conditions in the atmosphere on a ________ basis, whereas climate is a description of ___________weather conditions.

hourly or daily; average, long-term

Wildfires:

are not always damaging for natural environments, can have an increased negative effect due to the efforts intended to prevent them, release nutrient minerals that are previously locked in dry organic material, are increasing do to climate change

Chaparral biomes occur:

in regions around the globe with mild, rainy winters, followed by hot, dry summers

Which of the following organizational hierarchies is correctly listed from smallest to largest unit?

1. population 2.community 3.ecosystem 4.biome

A relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by similar environmental factors regardless of where it occurs in the world is called a/an:

biome

Tundra:

has an extended day length during its growing season

The biome most suitable for the development of farmland is:

temperate grassland

The boreal forest is located ______ the tundra.

south of

The biome with high amounts of precipitation, large narrow-leaved evergreen trees, and epiphytes including lichens is the:

temperate rain forest

Hot summers and cold winters, topsoil rich in organic material, annual precipitation of 75 to 125 cm (30-50 in), and many hardwood trees are characteristics of the:

temperate deciduous forest

The tallgrass prairie is currently the rarest biome in North America due to:

conversion to agriculture

Which of the following biomes has the highest biodiversity?

tropical rain forest

Mixing of water layers, which often occurs in temperate lakes due to decreasing ambient temperature, is referred to as:

turnover

Free-floating aquatic organisms are known as:

plankton

A coastal body of water, partly surrounded by land, with input from both sea and fresh water is called:

estuary

Coral reefs:

protect coastlines from erosion, are the most diverse of all marine environments, are found in shallow, nutrient poor, tropical waters, may occur as barrier, fringing, or atoll formations

The thermocline is the layer in a lake at which:

the warm upper zone meets the cold lower zone

Deciduous forests:

have trees that shed their leaves seasonally

The biomes that commonly have fire-adapted species are:

chaparral, temperate grassland, and savanna

Which of the following abiotic factors does not typically affect biome structure?

salinity

The biomes known for supporting herds of grazing animals are:

temperate grassland and savanna

Which of the following does not apply to a biome?

usually confined to a relatively small geographical area

Which of the following is not important in determining the distribution of organisms in aquatic biomes?

water

Which of the following is not found at the boundary between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems?

oceanic province

Which of the following is not a source of human impact on the marine environment?

increased levels of O2

According to the diagram below, desert biomes would fall into the area marked by the letter:

E: Hot, Tropics. Right bottom corner.

Wetlands are important for all of the following reasons except:

they contribute to asymmetry in urban communities

Humans harm the oceans in all of the following ways except:

Recycling

What distinguishes the members of a particular species?

They look the same, they occupy the same niche, they freely breed and produce viable offspring, they can communicate w/ each other.

The theory of evolution by natural selection is supported by

biogeography

Which of the following best represents superior evolutionary "fitness" for individuals in a population?

they produce the most viable offspring

The change in species composition that takes place after a forest fire is referred to as

secondary succession

The following relationships are: humans + mosquitoes

parasitic

Relationship: humans + pigeons

commensual

Relationship: humans + dogs

mutual

Natural selection should favor those individuals of each species that avoid or reduce competition.

True

What portion of the human's fundamental niche are we occupying today?

100%

8. When surface water temperature in the eastern Pacific Ocean becomes unusually cool, and westbound trade winds become unusually strong, it is called:

La Nina

1. Which of the following IS NOT one of the five main biogeochemical cycles of matter?

Iron

2. The carbon in fossil fuels, food and plants return to the atmosphere by

respiration, combustion, decomposition

3. Which of the following cycles does not involve an atmospheric phase of matter?

phosphorus

5. Which of the following surfaces has the lowest albedo?

asphalt

6. In which level of the atmosphere do we experience our weather?

troposphere

7. Which winds did Columbus and other explorers of tropical America use to cross the Atlantic?

Trade Winds

9. Which of the following is NOT caused by the Coriolis effect?

Tides

Which of the following are aquatic bottom-dwelling organisms?

benthos

7. Marine biomes are defined by all the following, except:

moisture

Which is the rarest untouched biome in the US?

tall grass praire

Temperate deciduous forests have been converted to agricultural use for how long?

millenia

The most biodiverse biome is:

tropical rain forest

The Arctic tundra receives less annual rainfall than some desert biomes.

True

A terrestrial biome is defined primarily by:

both temperature & moisture

Fire is a natural element of terrestrial ecosystems

Only true for some ecosystems

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