Symbiosis is the result of coevolution. Coevolution is the result of the interdependent evolution of:
two interacting species
Which of the following is an area where primary succession is likely to occur?
A sand dune along a lakeshore
An ecological description of a species typically includes:
whether it is a producer, consumer, or decomposer, predator and/or prey, the kinds of symbiotic associations it forms, what species it competes with
Which of the following characterizes a symbiotic relationship?
a close interrelationship where both species benefit, a close inter- relationship where one species benefits and the other is not affected, a close interrelationship where one species benefits and the other is adversely affected, an intimate relationship between members of two or more species
Predation can be defined as:
one organism consuming another organism, which may be a plant or animal
Which of the following statements is true?
Predation exerts a selective force on the prey, favoring characteristics that reduce the probability of capture.
Which of the following is not an adaptation to improve the efficiency of prey capture?
The shape of the bill on the bird in the figure below is most likely the result of:
coevolution & natural selection
Resource partitioning can be accomplished through all of the following except:
increasing niche overlap
Based on the figure below, as the structural complexity of the vegetation decreases, species richness
The number of species in a community can depend on:
the geological history of the region
the abundance of ecological niches
the stability of the ecosystem
the productivity of the ecosystem
The reason(s) that tropical regions of the world have such high biodiversity is:
because there are many ecological because they have a high productivity because they are geologically stable
Which of the following is the best example of primary succession?
a forest develops on the edge of a retreating glacier
The potential ecological niche of an organism is its _______, while the niche an organism actually occupies is its ________.
fundamental niche; realized niche
Green anoles were forced out of their established habitat of trees, plants, walls and fences by invasive brown anoles. The green anoles then had to find new habitats in wetlands and tree crowns. This example illustrates the concepts of:
both competition and realized niche
describe the movement of water and other materials through abiotic and biotic interactions
Which of the following is not one of the biogeochemical cycles considered of particular importance for organisms?
In the carbon cycle, carbon can be found in:
carbon dioxide and coal
limestone, animals, and plants
oil, bicarbonate, and sugar
The pathway by which carbon is transferred from living organisms to the atmosphere is called:
The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important and complex of the biogeochemical cycles. It is important because nitrogen:
is an essential part of biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids (DNA)
Nitrogen fixation is:
the conversion of gaseous nitrogen into an organism friendly form (ammonia (NH3)
is the product of a massive nuclear fusion reaction, essential for photosynthesis, captured by plants & may become energy available from fossil fuels, powers the hydrologic and other biochemical cycles
Which of the following does not influence climate?
topography, distance from the ocean, latitude, vegetation
Which of the following has the most concentrated energy and highest destructive potential?
The phosphorus cycle differs from the carbon cycle in that:
the atmosphere does not contribute to the phosphorus cycle
The atmosphere consists of five concentric layers. What is the order of these layers starting at the Earth's surface?
troposhere, stratosphere,mesosphere, thermosphere,exosphere
Weather is a term that refers to the conditions in the atmosphere on a ________ basis, whereas climate is a description of ___________weather conditions.
hourly or daily; average, long-term
are not always damaging for natural environments, can have an increased negative effect due to the efforts intended to prevent them, release nutrient minerals that are previously locked in dry organic material, are increasing do to climate change
Chaparral biomes occur:
in regions around the globe with mild, rainy winters, followed by hot, dry summers
Which of the following organizational hierarchies is correctly listed from smallest to largest unit?
1. population 2.community 3.ecosystem 4.biome
A relatively distinct terrestrial region characterized by similar environmental factors regardless of where it occurs in the world is called a/an:
The biome with high amounts of precipitation, large narrow-leaved evergreen trees, and epiphytes including lichens is the:
temperate rain forest
Hot summers and cold winters, topsoil rich in organic material, annual precipitation of 75 to 125 cm (30-50 in), and many hardwood trees are characteristics of the:
temperate deciduous forest
The tallgrass prairie is currently the rarest biome in North America due to:
conversion to agriculture
Mixing of water layers, which often occurs in temperate lakes due to decreasing ambient temperature, is referred to as:
A coastal body of water, partly surrounded by land, with input from both sea and fresh water is called:
protect coastlines from erosion, are the most diverse of all marine environments, are found in shallow, nutrient poor, tropical waters, may occur as barrier, fringing, or atoll formations
Which of the following does not apply to a biome?
usually confined to a relatively small geographical area
Which of the following is not important in determining the distribution of organisms in aquatic biomes?
Which of the following is not found at the boundary between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems?
Which of the following is not a source of human impact on the marine environment?
increased levels of O2
According to the diagram below, desert biomes would fall into the area marked by the letter:
E: Hot, Tropics. Right bottom corner.
Wetlands are important for all of the following reasons except:
they contribute to asymmetry in urban communities
What distinguishes the members of a particular species?
They look the same, they occupy the same niche, they freely breed and produce viable offspring, they can communicate w/ each other.
Which of the following best represents superior evolutionary "fitness" for individuals in a population?
they produce the most viable offspring
The change in species composition that takes place after a forest fire is referred to as
Natural selection should favor those individuals of each species that avoid or reduce competition.
8. When surface water temperature in the eastern Pacific Ocean becomes unusually cool, and westbound trade winds become unusually strong, it is called:
2. The carbon in fossil fuels, food and plants return to the atmosphere by
respiration, combustion, decomposition
7. Which winds did Columbus and other explorers of tropical America use to cross the Atlantic?