William Lloyd Garrison
Emotionally high-strung, spiritual child of the Second Great Awakening. He published in Boston the first issue of his militantly antislavery newspaper The Liberator. Most conspicuous, vilified, and nonresistant of the abolitionists. It was his relentlessness that led to his shattering abolitionists blast. His work led to that of other abolitionists such as Wendell Phillips and David Walker.
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
This was a court case that began in Missouri between a slave "Dred Scott" vs. his master and later the supreme court arguing that because he had lived in the free state of Wisconsin he should be free. However, the supreme court's verdict on this controversial case was that since he was property he could be taken anywhere and that he had no right to sue as he was not a citizen. This decision was important because it angered the northern people who claimed the verdict violated the terms of the Missouri Compromise. It sparked conflict between the North and south and became a primary cause leading up to the Civil War.
Johnson's Plan for Reconstruction
Majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty, new government must ban slaver and ratify 13th Amendment, Confederate officials may vote and hold office.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced England's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
The Manifest Destiny was an emotional upsurge in American believing they should spread their democratic government over the entire North America and possibly extend into South America. The campaign of 1844 relied heavily on this new surge. James Polk represented the Democrats while Henry Clay was nominated by the Whigs. The campaign and mudslinging was as harsh and spread all over the continent.
Tenure of Office Act
1866 - enacted by radical congress - forbade president from removing civil officers without senatorial consent - was to prevent Johnson from removing a radical republican from his cabinet
Deep South vs. Upper South
`Deep south was more into slaves than the upper south was. They relied on slaves more.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
a.) put the South under military rule b.)Ordered states to hold new elections for deleagates to create new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting. e.) Required southern states to guarantee
Douglas's response to Lincoln's question regarding people voting on slavery and being overruled by the Supreme Court. It stated that no matter how the court ruled, slavery will stay down if the people vote it down. This response in the Lincoln-Douglas trials resulted in Douglas defeating Lincoln for Senate in Illinois.
He was a militant abolitionist that took radical extremes to make his views clear. In May of 1856, he led a group of his followers to Pottawattamie Creek and launched a bloody attack against pro-slavery men killing five people. This began violent retaliation against he and his followers. This violent attack against slavery helped give Kansas its nick name, "bleeding Kansas". There have been a variety of interpretations of what He's position in history should be. The verdict seems to be a national hero who fought for the rights of slaves and died for them as a white man. His strength to except death for his cause brought strength to the ideological movement during the Civil War which gave people a reason to fight.
The most important of only two southern forts that remained in the "stars and stripes" after the secession. However, only lasted until the middle of April 1861 as when Lincoln sent reinforcements they were attacked in one of the first official battles of the war. _________________ demonstrates how the country was truly divided and the small amount of support located in the South. When Lincoln sent reinforcements Jefferson Davis saw it as an act of war and attacked the troops for one of the first official battles of the war.
after disputes over Texas lands that were settled by Mexicans the United States declared war on Mexico in 1846 and by treaty in 1848 took Texas and California and Arizona and New Mexico and Nevada and Utah and part of Colorado and paid Mexico $15,000,000
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
Election of 1860
Virtually 2 elections. One in the North and one in the south. An election Where Lincoln had victory in the southern states. The issue depended on slavery because the North and South had different opinions.
Fateful amendment that stated slavery will not exist in territory from Mexico. It was another North vs. South battle of the congress. Came to symbolize the issue of slavery in different territories.
Election of 1864
Lincoln vs. McClellan, Lincoln wants to unite North and South, McClellan wants war to end if he's elected, citizens of North are sick of war so many vote for McClellan, Lincoln wins.
Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction
10% of voters from the last election had to pledge to support the union. Pardon all Confederates except high-ranking officials and those who were cruel to prisoner's of war.
Laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
This was the first battle of the Civil war. Fought by the ill prepared Union army it was a heavy defeat by the Confederates. This battle showed that the Lincoln had been wrong to claim this would be a quick and easy war. The defeat put it into perspective showing that the Union forces were no match skill wise to the Confederate army and they would have to depend on only number.
Monitor v. Merrimack
Was a battle between two ironclad ships, lasts five days and has no winner but changes the paradigm of naval warfare
This was a Union Victory coming the day after Gettysburg in Mississippi and was the South's lifeline o the western sources of supply. The significance of back to back victories for the North was monumental as it convinced many of Republican success. The most important aspect of this victory is it ended any hope of Britain interfering on the side of the South. It also tipped the scale in favor of the abolitionists.
The sight of a gigantic war with Meade and his 92,000 troops and Lee's 76,000 troops in which by sheer number the North was Victorious. The devastation at Gettysburg broke the back of the Confederate attack and broke the heart of the Confederate Cause.
The Seven Days' Battle
Launched by general Robert E. Lee from June 26-July 2, 1862.The Confederates were winning and drove McClellan back to the sea. Lincoln then fired McCellan.
A critical battle where two Union soldiers found Lee's battle plans that were dropped on the ground.This helpful evidence Helped McClellan halt Lee at the battle. Most desicive even in the civil war. This victory lead to the emancipation Proclimation.
Where Grant cornered Lee in 1865, ending the Civil War. This reunited the Union, and freed the slaves, although they were not to attain full liberty for a long while.
Declared that the slaves were forever free in the confederate states that were still in rebellion. Put an end to the war and helped preserve the union later came the 13th amendment.
Split Nebraska into two different states, Kansas and Nebraska, leaving the issue of slavery to be determined by popular sovereignty. One of the most momentous measures ever to pass congress. Greased the slippery slope to the Civil War. Resulted in the Republican Party.
Southern whites who supported republican policy through reconstruction.
Lincoln's Goal for the Civil War
to preserve the Union, he believed Constitution didn't give President power to abolish slavery. Knew some Northerners and Border State residents were against abolition.
This party organized by "Nativists" in outrage of all the Irish and German immigrants flooding the country. Were a group of people who opposed the increasing immigration levels and attempted to write legislation for rigid restrictions on immigration and naturalization and for laws authorizing The deportation of alien paupers. This was just an example of a group of people attempting to thwart the increase of immigration which has continued to make-up America.
The Thirteenth Amendment
forbid slavery, making slavery and involuntary servitude both illegal. The Amendment was ratified in 1865, after the war was over. The South had to ratify it to be readmitted to the Union. The Thirteenth Amendment was the first step in a long journey towards racial equality.
Crittenden Amendment/ Compromise
An effort by Senator James Henry Crittenden of Kentucky to appease south. Slavery in the territories was prohibited north of 36 and 30. Was rejected by Lincoln because he completely opposed the expansion of slavery.
The Fourteenth Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws.
The Fifteenth Amendment
Passed in 1869, it gave Blacks their right to vote.
Ulysses S. Grant
A western general who replaced McClellan because of his inconsistency and led the Union to victory. Although he was just a subpart student at WestPoint he still proved more effective in her field. He had a drinking problem admired by Lincoln. Grant gave Lincoln a general that he could depend on which greatly helped the Union in its quest for Victory. He was very aggressive and new men needed to be sacrificed for victory. He once said when asked about Grant's drinking problem "Give me 100 barrels of what he's drinking and I'll give it to the rest of my officers".
General George C. McClellan
He was the "on again off again" general of the Union army and a WestPoint Graduate. He was known for his brilliant organization skills and beloved by his troops for his willingness to be conservative in an effort to save lives. __________'s conservativism prevented him from having as much as an effect as Lincoln hoped for as he never did a good enough job. This led to him being fired and reinstated multiple times until he was permanently replaced by Grant.
William Tecumseh Sherman
Red-haired and red-bearded he captured Atlanta in September 1864 and burned the city in November. He was a pioneer of "Total War" as he was very destructive and aggressive. __________'s "total war" mentality angered the South who felt he was further provoking war. However it is undeniable that his methods were very effective.
Sprang up, partly to oppose the Kansas-Nebraska Act, in the Midwest, notably Wisconsin and Michigan, as a mighty moral protest against slavery. Brought together disgruntled Whigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, Know-Nothings, and other opposers of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Still one of the two dominant political parties to this day.
an 1864 plan for Reconstruction that denied the right to vote or hold office for anyone who had fought for the Confederacy...Lincoln refused to sign this bill thinking it was too harsh.
• Passed 14th and 15th amendments
• Military reconstruction act divided the south into five military districts
• New state constitutions required to guarantee voting rights
• Military rule protected voting rights for African Americans
• Empowered African Americans in government and supported their education
John Wilkes Booth
The man that shot Lincoln in the head at Ford's Theater. A half-crazed (according to the book, I don't know what to believe after reading that chapter from Lies My teacher Told Me...) Pro-Southern actor. First man ever to assassinate an American President.
African Americans and poor whites would work on a land owned by another in return for small pay or some crops.
Stephen A. Douglas
A squat, bull-necked, heavy-chested, self-made Senator. Supported the democratic concept of dividing Nebraska into Kansas and Nebraska, the issue of slavery in each state determined by popular sovereignty. He delivered a counterstroke to offset the Gadsden thrust for souther expansion westward.
James K. Polk
First "dark horse" presidential candidate. He defeated Henry Clay in 1844 election. Developed a successful four-point program which lowered tariffs, restored the independent treasury, and led to the acquisition of California and Oregon.
This was the idea presented by Crass to leave it up to new territories on deciding whether or not they wanted to enter as slave states, however this contradicted the Missouri compromise which restricted slaver over the 36 30 line. This angered many people as it directly contradicted the Missouri Compromise, however it did settle some of the disputes between the majority of the slave states vs. free states. It gave the Free states a better opportunity to outnumber the slave states, but many conflicts still arose.
Sumner v. Brooks
As a senator from Mass., he was a leading abolitionist. His speech, "The Crime Against Kansas." was an assault of the pro-slavery South Carolina and the South in general. The insult angered Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks walked up to his desk and beat him unconscious. This violent incident helped touch off the war between the North and the South.
Compromise of 1850
Series of legislation addressing slavery and the boundaries of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War. California was admitted as a free state, Texas received financial compensation for relinquishing claim to lands West of the Rio Grande river, the territory of New Mexico was organized with popular sovereignty, the slave trade was abolished in Washington, D.C., and the Fugitive Slave Law was passed It temporarily defused sectional tensions in the United States, postponing the secession crisis and the American Civil War. Also repealed the compromise of 1820.
This was the name given to the conflict between Northern and Southern immigrants to Kansas which resulted in conflicts concerning popular sovereignty. There would be constant battle between abolitionists and anti-abolitionists to try to make Kansas join their respected beliefs. One could go as far as to say that this conflict was the start as the Civil War as it was battle between North and south. It showed how there was no turning back and the only solution would have to come from the blood of the citizens.
General Sherman lead a force from Chattanooga, Tennessee to South Carolina destroying everything the Confederates could use to survive. He set fire to South Carolina's capital, Columbia.
Was Lincoln's vice-president, and became president after Lincoln was shot. Through the questionable crucifixion thesis he is though to have taken the bullet of Lincoln's inevitable fate of impeachment. The first US president to be impeached.
in the civil war the states between the north and the south: delaware, mayland, kentucky, and missouri
Robert E. Lee/Stonewall Jackson
_________ was the first-rate, gray-haired commander of the South whose chivalry and honor embodied southern ideal. His chief lieutenant was _____2_____, a black-bearded man, a gifted tactical theorist, and a master of speed and deception. Due to these two men the South had the advantage in military leadership, the North winning mostly due to luck and numbers.
This was a manipulative document designed by the pro-slavery members of Kansas after they realized that there were too many abolitionists for it to be a slave state. It sated that any if anyone voted against slavery in Kansas that all the slaves already present would remain slaves along with their offspring. This was another example of how the manipulative south would go to any extreme to maintain slavery in the Union. This conflict helped bring about the Civil War.
The fifteenth president of the U.S., _______ was highly influenced by the South. Regime's legacy relied heavily on the notorious Lecompton Constitution. Buchanan's antagonizing of the Douglas Democrats in the North divided the once-powerful Democratic Party. This left the door open for the Republicans, who would gather behind Abraham Lincoln.
October of 1859; John Brown of Kansas attempted to create a Southern-wide slave revolt. He planned to ride down the river and provide slaves with guns, but the slaves were not organized. Brown was captured and hanged. This was just another reason for the South to separate from the North, which, in their opinion, was full of John Browns. John Brown became a martyr to the northern abolitionist cause.
Panic of 1857
An economic crash that arose due to the inflation caused by inpouring California gold. The demands of the Crimean War over-stimulated grain growth and land speculation, and when the collapse came over five thousand businesses failed. Northern farmers were hard-hit by the panic, while the South basically went untouched. Also the panic created a clamor of higher tariff rates.
Lincoln challenged Douglas, probably the nations most devastating debater, to a debate. Lincoln brought up the question of whether or not a territory could vote slavery down without the Supreme Court overruling. Douglas responded with what's known as the Freeport Doctrine, stating that no matter how the court ruled, if people vote slavery down it will stay down. Although Lincoln was defeated in the running for Illinois, the rippling effect of these debates led to his potential Republican nomination for President.
President of the confederacy from Kentucky who was in favor of the expansion of slavery. "All we ask is to be left alone" The republicans still won control over congress. He was the rival of Lincoln.
Taylor was a general and hero of the Mexican-American war. He was elected to the presidency in 1848, representing the Whig party and was a good soldier but poor administrator. He was in office during the crisis of California's admittance to the Union but died in office before a compromise could be worked out, and left vice president Filmore to finalize a deal between the hostile north and south. His significance as president was that he was one of the last Whigs and didn't solve the problem of sectionalism in the country which caused the civil war.
Personal Liberty Laws
After S. Carolina made it a penal offense for any state official to enforce new federal stature, other states passed "personal liberty laws", which denied local jails to federal officials. Hampered federal law enforcement. Illustrated the struggle between state and federal power.
Engineer of the Compromise of 1850, which was his third great compromise. Suggested that the North should yield by enacting a more feasible fugitive-slave law. The "Great Pacificator" was responsible for three of the most important compromises in American history. Without ___________, it is plausible to say the Civil War would have occurred much earlier.
The purchase of land in the Southern part of the New Mexico Territory. Allowed the completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad. With the new territory, the South could build its coveted railroad that would give them direct connection to the raw materials of the West.
American ministers in Spain, England, and France had a confidential meeting attempting to acquire Cuba for $120,000,000. This secret quickly leaked and Northerners rose against manifesto of Brigands. Helped territorial expansion.