invented by Johannes Gutenberg in 1440, most used of modern moveable type, mechanical device that applies pressure to an inked surface on a medium, then transferring an image or words
1433-1499, one of the most influential humanist philosophers of early Italian Renaissance, reviver of Neoplatonism, first translator of Plato's complete extent works into Latin
Theologia Platonica de immortalitate animae- treatise on the immortality of the soul, interest in astrology= trouble with church, accused of magic in 1489 by Pope Innocent III, doctrine later accepted by protestant thinkers, 14 years after death the church declared immortality of the soul as dogma
1463-1494, Italian philosopher, famed for events of 1486, at 23 he defended the 900 theses, Ficino was his teacher
Oration on the Dignity of Man
Mirandola wrote, called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance", key text of humanism, justified the importance of human quest for knowledge within a neo-platonic framework
1469-1527, Italian political philosopher, statesman, poet, playwright, and thinker, had bad rep b/c of his insights on political power and human nature, wrote "The Prince" in 1513, his blunt nature of the maxims has given him a rep for immortality
written by Machiavelli, was written in form of advice to a new ruler in how to found a state and to maintain power, the prince must not be hated, methods an aspiring prince can use to acquire the throne
1478-1529, and Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier, and a prominent author, wrote "The Book of the Courtier"
The Book of the Courtier
written by Castiglione, not about literature or philosophy, like a book of etiquette, organized as scenes of fictional conversations that occur btw. courtiers of the Duke of Urbino, have a cool mind, a good voice along with proper bearing and gestures, warrior spirit, be athletic, and have good knowledge of humanities, classics, and fine arts
1474-1533, Italian poet, and author of romantic epic poem Orlando Furioso, composed poem in ottava rima rhyme scheme (abababcc)
written by Ariosto, means "Mad orlando", takes place during war btw. Charlemagne and his Christian paladins, poem wanders at will from Japan to the moon, fantastical creatures such as orc, a gigantic sea creature, peom is divided into 46 cantos each containing a variable # of 8-line stanzas
1469-1536, greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance, first editor of the New Testament, famous for "Adagia" and "The Praise of Folly"
wanted to see a massive program of education from which would come a universal Christian church, big task but though it could happen if the church cut costs
written by Erasmus, annotated collectionof 3,000 greek and Latin adages, ex. to leave no stone unturned- check everything out, to grind one's teeth, to look a gift horse in the mouth- if someone is giving you a free gift don't turn it down
a short but memorable saying that holds some important fact of experience that is true to many people
Praise of Folly
written by Erasmus, satire so he could speak critically, critical of war, greed, and immortality, allowed him to accentuate abuses to make them easily recognizable, contains themes of humanism, pacifism, true Christian commitment
1484-1531, leader of reformation in Switzerland, influenced by writings of Erasmus, first public controversy in 1522, he attacked the custom of fasting during Lent, attacked the use of images in church
formed alliance of reformed cantons= divided swiss confederation along religious lines, ideas come to the attention of Martin Luther, killed in battle at 47
Sir Thomas More
1478-1535, lawyer, scholar, author, statesman, gained rep as a leading Renaissance humanist, violent opponent of the Reformation of Martin Luther, he was Lord Chancellor for the last 6 years of his life
Thomas More's Sainthood
coined the term Utopia, wrote "Utopia" in 1516, imprisoned and beheaded in 1535 because he wouldn't sign the Act of Supremacy, in 1980 he was made a saint of the church
written by Sir Thomas More, written in Latin, frame narrative, the society he described was not actually his own "perfect society", he wrote fiction to get his message across, depicts a fictional island, ideas that went against his Catholic religion
1509-1564, Frenchman, trained in humanism and law and technology, ultimate influence
John Calvin's Commentaries
commentaries on most of the books of the Bible, first commentary on Romans published in 1540, by 1555 he finished Acts and Gospels in the New Testament, in the Old Testament he wrote a commentary on Isaiah
1533-1592, most influential writer of the French Renaissance, popularized the essay as a literary genre, wrote the book "Essais", most famous for skeptical remark "What do I know?"
written by Montaigne, describes his own poor memory
Sir Philip Sidney
1554-1586, became one of the Elizabethan Age's most prominent figures, a poet, courtier and a soldier, wrote "Astrophel and Stella"
Astrophel and Stella
written by Sir Philip Sidney, 1580s, and English sonnet sequence, 108 sonnets & 11 songs, Astrophel is the star lover
The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia
long prose work written at end of the 16th century, romance that combines pastural elements with a mood derived from Hellenistic model
1552-1599, English poet, wrote "The Faerie Queene"