What is the top layer of our earth?
Beneath the crust is the largest part of the earth. What is it called?
What are the two separate parts of the core?
The outer core and the inner core
The inner core of the earth may have temperatures reaching how high?
5500 degrees celsius
What are changes to the earth called that alter the shape of the land?
weathering, done by water and plant growth
What is it called when loose bits of rock, sand & soil are carried away?
Rivers of ice, known as _____________, can dig up & carry away large amounts of rock.
What is it called when hot molten rock from inside the earth escapes and erupts?
Scientists believe the earth used to be one large continent, but over time broke apart into 7 continents. What do they call this process of breaking apart?
Scients believe continents & ocean floor rest on huge blocks of rock. This theory is called what?
The study of the earth's crust is called what?
A solid, inorganic substance found naturally in the earth is called what?
A solid, inorganic substance found naturally in the earth made of two or more minerals is called what?
How easily a mineral can be scratched is called what?
The way a mineral shines or does not shine is called what?
How heavy or light a mineral is called it ________________?
An orderly arrangement of atoms is called a __________________?
Glass has a hardness of what number?
Steel has a hardness of what number?
Your fingernail has a hardness of what number?
A penny had a hardness of what number?
What are three types of luster we have studied?
metalic, earthy, glassy
What are two other ways that some minerals may be identified?
What is a type of rock found in layers made from particles cemented together?
A type of rock made from hardened magma or lava is called what?
What is the hardest mineral of all?
A dull, black rock with small crystals
A type of rock changed by heat and pressure?
Small particles that settle to the bottom of water in layers is called?
How is igneous rock formed?
from intense heat
Name two types of igneous rocks?
Intrusive & Extrusive
This type of igneous rock is formed inside the earth from magma
This type of igneous rock is formed outside the earth from lava
Hot molten rock inside the earth
Hot molten rock outside the earth
A huge mass of magma that cools under the earth's surface to form rock
When a mass of magma pushes up the earth's surface and cools forming a dome
A verticle igneous formation formed from colled magma
A horizontal igneous formation formed from colled magma
Three types of volcanic cones
shield or lava cone, cinder cone, composite or strato cone
Shield or lava cone is made of
Cinder cone is made of
rock, ash, cinders
Composite or strato cone is made of
rock, ash, cinder and lava in layers
The opening of a volcano where lava comes out
Mountain formed from colled lava, ashes, cinders and rock
A super continent that existed over 200 million years ago
The word igneous means what?
3 good things we get from volcanoes?
more rocks, fertile soil, more land
What is it called when one plate slips past another?
What is it called when one plate moves into another plate?
What is is called when one plate moves away from another plate?
What are two things that are produced whent he pieces of the earth's crust move?
volcanoes and earthquakes
Mt. St. Helens is what kind of volcano?
Kiluaea is what kind of volcano?
Paricutin is what kind of volcano?
Name the rock that is formed: intrusive, cooled slowly, large crystals
Name the rock that is formed: extrusive, cooled quickly, small crystals
Name the rock that is formed: extrusive, cooled very quickly, no crystals
Name the rock that is formed: extrusive, cooled when lave had air and gas bubbles
scoria and pumice
Rocks & pebbles
Mud or clay
Decayed plants and animals
This used to be granite
This used to be sandstone
This used to be shale
This used to be limeston
The five types of fossils
mold, cast, intact, imprint, petrified
5 potential disasters of volcanoes
lava flow, tidal wave, mud slide, land slide, deadly gases
If a rock cools slowly, what size are its crystals?
In order for crystals to form, there must be enough
time and space
Erupted 1991, composite cone, located in the "Ring of Fire" in the Phillipines
Erupted in 1943 in cornfield, cinder cone, located in Mexico
Violent eruption in 1980, composite cone, in Washington State
Mt. St. Helens
Has been continuously erupting for many years, shield cone, Hawaii
Erupted in prehistoric time, composite cone, described as "Volcano within a Volcano", Oregon
A large circular depression within a volcano's summit is called
Vibration of Earth caused by sudden release of energy stored in the crust
The main shock of an earthquake may be followed by an
The point at which an earthquake begins is the
Rocks move along a break called a
Earthquake waves are recorded by a
Most destructive seismic waves are
The strength of an earthquake is called its
MOst tsunamis are caused by ________________on the ocean floor
The Richter scale measures the ___________________of an earthquake
The underground point of origin of an earthquake where the rocks break and move
5 Effects of earthquakes
avalanches, shaking, tsunamis, rescue work to remove trapped victims, fires
4 factors that can affect how much damage an earthquake does
population, time of day, kind of rock and soil in the area, kind of buildings in the area
A huge crack that runs through most of CA that separates the North American and Pacific plates
San Andreas fault
How many earthquakes have occurred in the connected United States in the last 250 years?
How many earthquakes have occurred in CA in the last 250 years?
6 ways rocks and minerals are weathered
water, wind, heat, plants, ice, gravity
A scientist that studies rocks and fossils
Which kind of fossil consists of an insect that became stuck in tree resin?
Which kind of fossil consists of a hollowed space in the shape of an organism?
Which kind of fossil formed when minerals changed the hard parts of an organism into stone?
Which kind of fossil formed when minerals slowly moved into the space left when an organism decayed?
What are lichens?
plants that grow on rock
What is the lithosphere?
layer of solid rock
When you go deeper in the earth, does the temperature rise or fall?
What was the Richter Scale reading of "The Big One"
Where was "The Big One"
Waves of energy that are released during an earthquake
How a mineral shatters unevenly
About how old is the earth
4.5 billion years old
What are 3 requirements of a mineral?
solid, inorganic, found naturally from earth
What are 2 types of cleavage we have studied?
cubis and basal
Two minerals that have a cleavage are:
pyrite and halite
Identify halite by color
Identify galena by color
Identify sulfur by color
Hardness of quartz
Haardness of calcite
Hardness of talc
Hardness of galena
Hardness of gypsum
Hardness of flourite
Color streak of pyrite
Color streak of flourite
color streak of galena
The 10 plates are:
NA plate, SA plate, Nazca plate, Cocos plate, Pacific plate, Australian plate, Eurasian plate, African plate, Arabian plate, Somalian plate, Antartic plate, Scotia plate
Who came up with the theory of drifting continents?
Igneous rocks are formed from what?
magma and lava
When a volcano erupts violently, sometimes it forms what?
What comes out of a shield cone volcano?
a liquid lava
What comes out of a cinder cone volcano?
cinders, ash and a sticky lava
What comes out of composite cone volcano?
sometimes a sticky lava and sometimes lava, cinders, ash and debris
What cities did Mr. Vesuvius destroy?
Pompeii and Herculaneum
What happens when too much debris & ash from a volcano get up into the atmosphere?
What is a result of global cooling from volcanoes?
Are volcanoes formed by hot spots near each other or far away from each other?
They are near each other
How do plates move?
Convection currents coming from the mantle moving the crust
Name the 3 types of faults
normal fault, reverse fault and strike-slip fault
Where does an earthquake begin?
Where is the point directly above the focus?
Name the deadliest wave that comes from an earthquake?
Names the least deadliest earthquake waves?
Name the 2nd deadliest earthquake waves?
What are the deadliest things an earthquake can cause?
Tsunamis, avalanches, landslides, fires
How can engineers make houses stronger?
Rubber pillars that can withstand extreme shaking
They identify how old a fossil is by
how deep it is and what layer of earth it is in
Where did the astroid theory come from?
A big crater was found in Mexico full of iridium, which is rare on earth, but common in asteroids. The debris from the asteroid went into the atmosphere and caused an ice age, killing plants and herbivores, causing death.