Human Memory Weiten Chapter 7

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Blue coloured terms from the Weiten chapter including the sub-terms in italics. Both terms are valuable for understanding all concepts thoroughly.

encoding

Involves forming a memory code.

storage

Involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time.

retrieval

Involves recovering information from memory stores.

attention

Involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events.

early

When one is attending to complicated, high-load tasks that consume much of one's attentional capacity, selection tends to occur ........

later

When one is attending to simple, low-load tasks, more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions allowing for ........ selection.

Structural encoding

Relatively shallow encoding that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus. E.g., if words are flashed on a screen, one would register how they were printed (capital, lowercase, and so on) or the length of the words (how many letters).

phonemic encoding

Emphasizes what a word sounds like. This type of encoding involves naming or saying (perhaps silently) the words.

semantic encoding

The type of encoding that emphasizes the meaning of verbal input; it involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent.

levels of processing theory

A theory that proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes.

elaboration

Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding. Semantic encoding is often enhanced by this process.

imagery

Can be used to enrich encoding, by creating visual images to represent the words to be remembered.

dual coding theory

Holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall.

self referent encoding

Involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant.

sensory memory

Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second.

1/4 of a second

Memory traces in the sensory store decay in about?

short term memory

A limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for about 10 - 20 seconds.

rehearsal

The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information.

phonemic

Short-term memory had originally thought to depend primarily on what type of encoding?

chunking

Increasing the capacity of one's short-term memory by combining stimuli into larger, possibly higher-order units, called chunks.

chunk

A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.

working memory

Short-term memory is often referred as?

phonological loop

A working memory component that is at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold on to a phone number.

visuospatial sketchpad

A working memory component that permits people to temporarily hold and manipulate visual images. E.g., picturing one's living loom and rearranging it's layout.

central executive

A working memory component which is not a storage system, controls the deployment of attention, switching the focus of attention and dividing attention as needed. E.g., dividing attention between having a conversation and watching T.V.

episodic buffer

A working memory component that is temporary, limited-capacity store that allows the other various components of working memory to integrate information and that serves as an interface between working memory and long-term memory.

long term memory

An unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.

flashbulb memories

Unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous event.

clustering

The tendency to remember similar or related items in groups.

conceptual hierarchy

A multilevel classification system based on common properties among items.

schema

An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event. E.g., Trying to memorize a professor's office, you may list objects that one would assume to find, which may or may not actually be there.

semantic network

Consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts.

spreading activation

When people think about a word, their thoughts naturally go to related words. This occurs within a semantic network.

parallel distributed processing

This model assumes that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks. Also known as connectionist model.

parallel distributed processing

The model that asserts that specific memories correspond to particular patterns of activation in these networks.

connectionism

As opposed to semantic networks, a piece of knowledge is represented by a particular pattern of activation across an entire network. Thus, the information lies in the strengths of the connections, which is why parallel distributed processing is also called: .....................

tip of the tongue phenomenon

The temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it's just out of reach.

retrieval cues

Stimuli that help gain access to memories.

context cues

Trying to recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which the event occurred, thus aiding in memory retrieval.

reconstructions

To some extent, your memories are sketchy, that the past may be distorted and may include details that did not actually occur. These are?

misinformation effect

Occurs when participants' recall of an event they witnessed is altered by introducing misleading post-event information.

source monitoring

Involves making attributions about the origins of memories.

source monitoring error

Occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source.

cryptomnesia

Inadvertent plagiarism that occurs when people come up with an idea that they think is original when they were actually exposed to it earlier.

reality monitoring

A subtype of source monitoring. Refers to the process of deciding whether memories are based on external sources (one's perceptions of actual events) or internal sources (one's thoughts and imaginations).

nonsense syllables

Consonant-vowel-consonant arrangements that do not correspond to words.

forgetting curve

Graphs retention and forgetting over time.

retention

Refers to the proportion of material retained (remembered).

retention interval

The length of time between the presentation of materials to be remembered and the measurement of forgetting.

recall, recognition and relearning

What are the three principle methods of measuring retention?

recall

A measure of retention that requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues.

recognition

A measure of retention that requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options. (Subjects have cues to work with, the answers are in-front of them). E.g,. multi-choice tests merely measure recognition.

relearning

A measure of retention that requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before.

pseudoforgetting

The phenomenon of forgetting something that you never learned.

lack of attention

Pseudoforgetting is usually attributable to?

decay theory

Holds that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.

interference

The negative impact of competing information on retention is called?

interference

Theory that proposes people forget information because of competition for other material.

retroactive interference

Occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.

proactive interference

Occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.

encoding specificity principle

Holds that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code. This principle provides on explanation for the inconsistent success retrieval efforts.

Transfer appropriate processing

Occurs when the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention.

repression

Refers to keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious.

motivated forgetting

Repression is also known as?

long term potentiation

A long-lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway.

long term depression

A durable decrease in synaptic excitability along a neural pathway. This process may shed light on how forgetting occurs at the level of the synapse.

neurogenesis

The formation of new neurons may contribute to the sculpting of neural circuits that underlie memory.

retrograde amnesia

Involves the loss of memories for events that occurred prior to the onset of amnesia.

anterograde amnesia

Involves the loss of memories for events that occur after the onset of amnesia.

hippocampal region

Which region of the brain is critical for many types of long-term memory?

consolidation

A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory.

amygdala

The area of the brain critical to the formation of memories for learned fears and other emotional memories.

declarative memory system

Handles factual information. Contains recollections of words, definitions, names, dates, faces, events, concepts and ideas.

nondeclarative memory system

Houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional responses. It contains procedural memories of how to execute perceptual motor skills, such as riding a bike, typing, and typing one's shoes.

procedural

How to swing a bat is what type of memory?

declarative

Which memory system appears to be more vulnerable to forgetting? Declarative memory system, or nondeclarative? (And stop and think why).

semantic and episodic

Declarative memory system has been sub-divided into two other memory systems:

episodic

Memory system made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences. Using "time travel" to re-experience the past. Which includes things you have done, seen or heard and when.

semantic

Memory system (within declarative) containing general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned. E.g., My birthday is the 1st of September, the earth is round and Kelvin scored higher than Sean on the mid-term.

prospective memory

Involves remembering to perform actions in the future.

retrospective memory

Involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information. E.g., trying to remember when the Red Hot Chili Peppers toured NZ last.

absent minded

People who appear deficient in prospective memory task are often characterized as:

mnemonic devices

Strategies for enhancing memory.

false

Over-learning of information leads to poor retention. T or F ?

overlearning

Refers to continued rehearsal of material after you first appear to have mastered it.

serial position effect

Occurs when subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle.

acrostics

Phrases (or poems) in which the first letter of each word (or line) functions as a cue to help you recall information to be remembered. E.g., Remembering your musical notes: "Every good boy does fine".

acronym

A word formed out of the first letters of a series of words.

link method

Involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that links them together.

method of loci

Involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path where images of items to be remembered are associated with certain locations.

hindsight bias

The tendency to mold one's interpretation of the past to fit how the events actually turned out.

overconfidence

Fueled by the failure to seek disconfirming evidence.

semantic

Retrieval from long-term memory is usually best when the information has been stored at which level of processing?

sensory store

Which of the memory stores can hold the least amount of information?

context cues

When you attempt to recall the name of a high school classmate by imagining yourself back in the English class with her, you are making use of:

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