(1509-1564) Was born in Noyon in Northwestern France. Grew up studying law and converted to Protestantism in 1533. He believed he was chosen by God to reform the Church. Moved to Geneva to aid in it's reformation. Created a religion called Calvinism, presented writings to the masses, and believed in strict living.
(Bloody Mary)- (r. 1553-1558) was fiercely Catholic after her mother Catherine of Aragon, attempted to bring England back to Catholicism. She is known as "Bloody Mary" because of the hundreds of executions of Protestants, which alienated her subjects. Was also unpopular for marrying her cousin Phillip II of Spain. With her death Elizabeth I was crowned Queen.
(1505?-1572) A man who was determined to reform the Scottish Church in the style of that in Geneva. Considered himself a Calvanist. Persuaded Parliament to end papal authority and rule by bishops in 1560.
(1509-1547) Married to Catherine of Aragon, the wife to his late brother Arthur. To be able to marry Catherine (against canon law since she was the widow to his brother) he had to obtain a special papal dispensation. Together the two were only able to have one daughter, Mary. He grew frustrated by the inability to have a son and decided it was God punishing him for going against canon law. To receive an annulment he had to appeal to the pope, who was basically held captive in Rome by Catherine's nephew Emperor Charles V. Again frustrated, in the 1530 he separated the English Church from papal jurisdiction, making himself the head of the Church. After his divorce he went on to marry Anne Boleyn, whom he later had beheaded, and proceeded to marry four other women. Between 1535 and 1539 he dissolved the monasteries and nunneries in England for their wealth.
Mary Queen of Scots
Cousin to Elizabeth I, grew up in France but returned to Scotland (home land) to become Queen. Was next in line to the English thrown and was Catholic, a threat to Queen Elizabeth's thrown. Philip II supported Mary, and urged her to overthrow Elizabeth. Was deeply involved in a plan to assassinate Elizabeth in 1587. Queen Elizabeth had her imprisoned and later executed.
The Medici pope, nephew to Lorenzo the Great. Was Pope during the time of King Henry VIII. Allowed Henry to marry his brother's widow. When Henry wanted an annulment, the Pope refused, partially because Charles V help power over him.
(1483-1546) Was born in Eisleben in Saxony and went to the University of Erfurt and received a masters with distinction. He was going towards a law career, but then changed his mind and was ordained a priest in 1507 and earned a doctorate in theology. He was troubled by the corruption of the Catholic Church and wrote a letter called, "Ninety-five These on the Power of Indulgences" to Archbishop Albert. He refused to take back his ideas and soon had the support of almost all of Germany.
A Dominican friar who ran an Albert's indulgence. He promised full forgiveness of sins for the purchase of indulgences with the slogan, "As soon as coin in coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs".
(1500-1558) The heir to a wide and diverse amount of states and people. He considered himself to be the defender of Catholicism. The Reformation led to many wars, which were started in Switzerland (part of the Holy Roman Empire).
(1484-1531). A Swiss humanist who played a large role in the Reformation. He avowed in 1519 to not read from the Church's readings but from Erasmus' translation of the New Testament. Zwingli was convinced that the Christian life was based on the Scripture, which was the sole basis of religious truth. He had strong support from many city authorities.
Son of Emperor Charles V of Spain, married Mary Tudor to help bring Catholicism back to England. After her death supported and helped plan the assassination by Mary Stuart on Queen Elizabeth of England. When Mary Stuart also died, Phillip received advice to retaliate, and sent the Spanish Armada to Flanders to meet England.
Catherine of Aragon
Daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand of Spain, she was originally married to Arthur, elder brother to Henry VIII. After Arthur's death she went on the marry Henry and have a daughter Mary. When Henry wanted an annulment her family refused fiercely, for the annulment would make Catherine a fornicator and Mary a bastard.
Daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, followed her father in making England Protestant. Instead of being an extremist though, took the middle road between Catholic and Puritan extremes. Named herself supreme governor of the church so that her people could still be loyal to the pope. Was threatened by the assassination plot and then again by the Spanish Armada sent to England.
Friend of Henry VIII and supporter of the Reformation. Was a Lutheran, and became the Archbishop of Canterbury (the most prestigious position second to the king). Married Henry and Anne and crowned Anne Queen (not necessarily in that order).
Peace of Augsburg of 1555
Ended the religious wars in Germany that had been going on for decades. After this Charles V abdicated and moved to a monastery, and transferred his power to his brother Ferdinand.
English Reformation 1527
After King Henry VIII avowing that God was angry with him in 1527 and refused to give him a son, he began a series of measures in the 1530's separating the English Church from papal authority. Made Henry the supreme head of the Church. There were some who opposed the this, including Thomas More, and they were beheaded.
Council of Trent
When Pope Paul III made his court the center of reform. The clergy became models of piety. Also called a council, which met occassionally from 1545-1563 in Trent. The council's job was to remain on good terms with Protestants and to reform the Catholic Church. One of the main reasons for the spiritual revival of the Catholic Church.
When most of Europe was embrassing the Reformation, this was also occurring. After around 1540, there were few countries were converting to Protestantism. The Catholics were opposing the Protestants intellectually, politically, militarily, and institutionally. Due to the efforts of Jesuits, countries were again becoming Roman Catholic.
(1521-1559). A series of wars with the French that were fought in Italy. Specifically, they were fought on the eastern and southern boarders of France and eventually moved into Germany.
Edict of Nantes
A document signed by King Henry IV in 1598, allowing the freedom of faith to Calvinists. Document aided in restoring peace to France. Would later be acknowledged for aiding in the paving the way for French absolutism in the seventeenth century.
Approximately 130 vessels went sent to Flanders to meet a large of army of Spanish troops and meet England ships in the English Channel. They sailed from the Lisbon harbor on May 9, 1588. Despite their numbers, English ships were smaller, faster and easier to maneuver, and with the help of the wind, were able to defeat them.
Diet of Worms
An assembly of nobility and clergy. The first diet held by emperor Charles V in the German city Worms. Luther appeared and created an even broader audience for Reform ideas. Created the ability for states and princes to choose their own religion
Confession of Augsburg
At the Imperial Diet in 1530, Lutherians created a document on faith to the Catholics to sign. The document remains an authoritative statement for Lutheran believers.
The doctrines and teachings of John Calvin or his followers, emphasizing predestination, the sovereignty of God, the supreme authority of the Scriptures, and the irresistibility of grace. Believes hard work is pleasing in the eyes of God
The belief that humans have no free will, God determines your destiny. He also decides from the beginning who will receive salvation and who will not. He determines who who will receive salvation based on his will and purpose, rather than the persons actions.
The French Calvanists. After the unfortunate death of King Henry II, approxiametely one-tenth of the French population was Calvinist. Inhabited mainly the larger cities; Paris, Lyons, and Rouen.
A member of a group of Protestants that arose in the 16th century within the Church of England, demanding the simplification of doctrine and worship, and greater strictness in religious discipline.
An extreme form of Christianity; believed only in adult baptism. Only those who understood Scriptures could enter a covenant of faith. They believed the reformation had only gone halfway, and did not have a state to themselves. Ancestors of Amish and Mennonites.
A society founded by Ignatius Loyola. Called the Society of Jesus. The goal of the society is to spread the word of the Catholic faith around the world.
The practice of a clergyman holding more than one office in church and being paid for both.
Clerical immortality. In the early sixteenth century there was an alarming rate of members of the clergy being drunk, neglecting their vows of celibacy and partaking in fancy dress.
A document issued by the Catholic Church that lessened or forgave entirely a sin committed. To be reconciled the sinner had to confess their sins to a priest and fasting or praying (penance chosen by priest). Began to be widely abused by church officials.
The dogma in the Catholic Church that during the Eucharist, the bread and win became the body and blood of Christ. This was done by priests consecrating words during Mass. Also called Communion.
The doctrine that the blood and body of Christ coexist with the wine and bread during the Eucharist.
A small group of moderates in France that claimed that only with a strong monarchy could France remain strong and not collapse. The group had people from both faiths, accepting Huguenots as an official and organized group.
Marie de Medici
The wife to Henry IV. Was a queen-regent with her son, the nine year old Louis XIII. She headed the government for him.
(1478-1535) An English humanist who studied the Classics and eventually entered the government service. Wrote Utopia and was a close friend to King Henry VIII. Refused to submit and acknowledgement the Act of Supremacy created by Henry. Was beheaded.
Pope Julius II
(Pontificate 1503- 1513). Well known as the "Warrior Pope". Was a patron of the arts, commissioning works such as the painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Wanted to restore the glory of the Papal States after the ruination by the Borgia's. He led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy as well.
Treaty of Cateau Cambresis
A treaty signed between France and Spain in 1559, ending the Habsburg-Valois Wars. Spain was the victor of the wars, and France had to begrudgingly acknowledge Spain dominance in Italy. However, true peace was elusive.
The Church where Luther nailed his 95-Thesis on the front door.
A branch of Calvinism, brought to Scotland by John Knox.
European Witch Hunt
A common thing from around 1560-1660. Was started because of reformer's extreme notions of the Devils powers, as well as the insecurities caused by the religious wars. Was also common because of the heightened sense of God's power and divine wrath during this time. Was common with both Protestants and Catholics. Between 1-200,000 were officially tried. Were used by the Devil to get what he wanted.
The revolt of the peasants against the nobles and the wealthy. Was started in part by Luther, by encouraging them to think for themselves and interpret the bible. This started a social reform among the peasants. Luther denied anything to do with it, and the revolt was eventually put down by the peasants.
War of the Three Henry's
The war was fought between the royalists, led by Henry III of France; the Huguenots, led by the heir-presumptive Henry of Navarre; and the Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise and funded and supported by Philip II of Spain.
The war was instigated by King Philip to keep Spain's enemy, France, from interfering with the Spanish army in the Netherlands and his planned invasion of England and Russia.
The war began when the Catholic League convinced King Henry III to issue an edict outlawing Protestantism and annulling Henry of Navarre's right to the throne; Henry III was possibly influenced by the royal favorite, Anne, Duke of Joyeuse.
A coalition of Catholics who made a League in 1609 to prevent the increase of Protestant religion and territory.
A coalition of Protestants who made a Union in 1608 to prevent the increase of Catholic religion and territory.