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Gerald Farr Texas State University

The fluid behavior of the plasma membrane results primarily from the...

flexibility of the lipid components

Nucleic acids indirectly

direct protein synthesis

in newly forming plant cells the wall that surrounds the plasma membrane is referred to as the

primary cell wall

vesicles from the ER most likely are on their way to the

Golgi body

Organelles involved in the synthesis of steroids and other lipids in gland cells are

smooth ER

Resolution by the best light microscope is ultimately limited by

the wavelength of light

Not all substances can cross the cell membrane, for this reason the cell membrane is said to be

selectively permeable

Maintains the three dimensional structure of animal cells

cytoskeleton

What cellular process involves an inward sinking of a small patch of membrane to form a cytoplasmic

endocytosis

The endoplasmic reticulum

serves as the internal transportation system of a cell

water constantly moves into the freshwater Paramecium because the cell is ______ relative to its environment

hypertonic

The cytoskeleton

extends between the nucleus and the plasma membrane

Four of the five choices listed below are bound by membranes.
chromoplast, vacuole, mitochondrion, lysosome

ribosomes do not have membranes

Which of the following is true of the transport proteins in the plasma membrane?

they span the lipid bilayer

A major difference between plant cell mitosis and animal cell mitosis is the absence in plant cells of

centrioles

The fluid filled sac that may store food, ions, or water in plant cells and is involved in fluid pressure is

central vacuole

The capacity of a cell to exhibit movement or mobility is generally attributed to which cellular component?

microtubules

Two adjacent plant cells are held together by a cementing layer termed the

middle lamella

Which type of transport across membranes will proceed naturally without energy input?

Osmosis

Inside the nuclear envelope the DNA in the form of fine 'spread out' strands is called

chromatin

Cells with high energy requirements, such as muscle ten to have many

mitochondria

What is a role of proteins found in eukaryotic plasma membranes

regulating flow of materials through the membrane

the ______ acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cell

lipid bilayer

Which cellular process involves an inward sinking of a small patch of membrane to form a cytoplasmic vesicle?

endocytosis

The system of canals, tubes, and sacs that transports molecules inside the cytoplasm is the

endoplasmic reticula

In the plasma membrane, the tails of the phospholipids

form a barrier to polar substances

Plasmodesmata are cell junctions that are similar functions to

gap junctions in animal cells

Organelles _______

are discrete, recognizable bodies in cytoplasm, are membrane bound compartments, are typical eukaryotic cells, separate chemical reactions in time and space

The energy for flagellar movement

appears to come from ATP

The largest cytoskeletal element is the

microtubule

Mitochondria typically arise by the division of existing

mitochondria

Glycoproteins differ from other membrane proteins in that they

have chains of a polysaccharide associated with them and they aid the immune system

what is the correct sequence of polypeptide transport in the secretory pathway

ribosome, ER, Golgi Bodies, Plasma Membrane

Which of the following processes does not involve formation of a vesicle

osmosis

which of the following is not required for cell function

transport mechanisms to bring substances in from outside of the cell

of the objects listed, which is the smallest that you can see without the aid of a microscope?

frog embryo

Hooke was the first to observe cells under a simple microscope in the 1600s because he was looking at

plant cells in which the thick cell wall was clearly visible.

The phospholipids and cholesterol that are used to form membranes are synthesized in the

smooth ER

The golgi apparatus packages materials into ______ for transport or export?

vesicles

What is the fate of defective or malfunctioning organelles in cells?

they accumulate in the cytoplasm eventually resulting in cell death

The RNA in the nucleus leaves through

nuclear pores

Which of the following would not be found in one of your liver cells?

a central vacuole

which organelle resembles a bacterium in it's size and biochemistry?

a mitochondrian

movements of individual water molecules through a cell membrane from a higher concentration toward a lower concentration is called

osmosis

ATP is

an energy poor compound

The organelle that pinches off portions of its membrane to form a compartment used for storage or transport is the

golgi body

Prokaryotes

are either bacteria or archeans, may have cell walls, are unicellular, have nucleoid regions

which of the following are not found in a prokaryotic cell

membrane bound organelles

the components of membranes that account for most of a cells functions are

phospholipids

four of the five items listed below are organelles found in eukaryotic cells

lysosome

a hypothetical microbullet shot through a phospholipid bilayer would pass the components in which order?

head, tail, tail, head

in an attempt to visualize the fluid mosaic model of a membrane we could describe the ____ as floating in a sea of ____

proteins, lipid

which of the following affects the rate of diffusion through a selectively permeable membrane?
I. Concentration Gradient
II Temperature
III molecular size

all three

four of the five choices listed below are characteristics of plasm membrane the exception is

inert and impermeable

in a typical cell the substance found in the highest percentage is

water

the term cell comes from this scientis's work and his description of the compartmenetaiton he saw this slices of corks

hooke

a gap junction

connects the cytoplasm of two cells

most membrane functions are carried out by

proteins

plasma membranes incorporate

receptor proteins, transport proteins, recognition proteins, adhesion proteins

sodium ions cross a membrane through transport proteins that receive an eneregy boost this is an example

of active transport

the net movement of molecules from a high concentration to a low concentration is descrived by which of the following

diffusion

in general the net movement of molecules in a fluid is a response to the

concentration gradient

a phospholiid has a phosphate containing head and two fatty acid tails attached to a backbone of

glycerol

which of the following will diffuse across a lipd bilayer?

carbon dioxide

scientists demonstrated the fluidity of plasma membrane proteins by

fusing the membranes of two different species

an ATPase pump takes part in

active transport

hydrostatic pressure

is the pressure that a fluid exerts against a structure enclosing it

active transport

is a process whereby molecules move from an area of low to high concentration, moves ions against a concentration gradient, involves use of energy, and counteracts the process of diffusion

if a plant synthesizes a secondary cell wall it is laid down

between plasma membrane and the primary cell wall

which of the following consists of nonliving substance?

cell wall

which of the following statements about the plant cell wall is not ture?

the middle lamella is laid down between the primary and secondary walls

which of the following structures would probably be least damaged by a fat or lipid dissolving solvent

cell wall

the only part of a green plant that is actually green is the

grana of choloroplasts

which of the following structures is not associated with chloroplasts

cristae

the stacks of coin shaped double membranes found in chloroplasts are

grana

salt is spread on clay tennis courts to kill weeds.based on your study of biology, how would you explain the process through which the weeds are killed

water diffused out of the the plant cells thereby weakening or killing them by plasmolysis

the membrane of pectin that is laid down between two daughter cells during cytokinesis is called the

middle lamella

which of the following is directly involved with the process of cellular respiration

mitochondria

the inner layer of the mitochondrial membrane may be invaginated to form

cristae

which is a characteristic of all life on earth

cells must take in raw materials, cells must take in enerfy, cells must build biological molecules, the cellular interior must be isolated from the environment

a cell without nucleoli is probably not producing

ribosomes

what is the main product of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

proteins

if lysosomes burst inside a cell the immediate result is likely to be

the cell will be digested from within

which organelle below is capable of producing its own protein

mitochondrium

which organelle below is capable of producing its own protein?

chloroplast

Lysosomes contain _____ enzymes

digestive

vesicles derived from the ER make their way to the ____, an organelle that functions in packaging, storage, and disribution

dictyosome

the double membrane systems around the cell's organelles are really two membranes, each of which may be referred to as a

none of these

which is the organelle with cristate?

mitochondria

the principle structural carbohydrate in plants is

cellulose

the cell theory states

all living things consist of cells

the primary structural difference between plant and animal cells is that most plant cells are

enclosed by a cell wall

the nucleoulus consists of

ribosomal subunits

the largest double membrane bound organelle is called the

nucleus

the smal compartmentalized structres withing the cytoplasm of living cells are called

organelles

cell structures that apparently function in controlling the addition of cellulose to the cell wall, in steering vesicles from the golgi bodies to the cell wall and in aiding movement within the cell are

microtubules

which of the following objects found in living cells is not bound by a membrane or membranes?

ribosomes

cell turgor pressure is increased when the cell is transferred to an external medium having

a higher concentration of water than the cell

the shrinking cytoplasm within a cell because of loss of water by osmosis is called

plasmolysis

the little tanks that hold and modify cell products in this cell organelle are called

dictyosome

name three nucleic acids

DNA, RNA, and ATP

which of the following macromolecules is composed of amino acid subunits

proteins

which of the follwing may possess primary secondary tertiary and quaternary structure

proteins

which of the follwing reactions requires the removal of water to form covalent bond?

glucose plus galactose is lactose

which of these is an example of a protein

hemoglobin

which of the following macromolecules is composed of monomer units containing a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing base

nucleic acids

large biological molecules are synthesized by removing

water

the energy produced in the mitochondrion is made available to the cell in the form of which of the following molecules

the nucleotide ATP

a cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, dna, ribsomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. it could be a cell from

a plant or an animal

membrane proteins are synthesized on ribosomes that are

attached to the rough ER

which of the following is released form the Golgi apparatus

lysosomes and secretory vesicles

which cellular component packages hydrolytic enzymes into lysosomes

golgi apparatus

which of the following organelles is continuous with the nuclear membrane?

rough ER

what primarily determines the shape of cells that lack cell walls

cytoskeleton

which organelle extracts energy from food molecules and stores it in the high energy bonds of ATP

mitochondrion

compared to cilia, flagella are

longer

cilia move

fluid across the surface of a cell

cardiac muscles consume more energy than any other type of cell. which organelle would you expect to be most abundant in cardiac muscle cells

mitochondrion

microtubules are responsible for all of the following except

pinching off the cytoplasm at eukaryotic cell division

proteins destined to be secreted from the cell are often modified in the golgi apparatus by the addition of

sugars

mitochondria are often called the powerhouses of the cell because they

are the site of energy producing reaction that power most cellular activities

the golgi apparatus packages materials into ____ for transport or export

vesicles

cytoskeletal filaments are built of

protein

which of the following cell structures would be found in an animal cell, but not in a bacterial cell?

ER

in metaboically active cells, you would expect to find a large number of

mitochondria

which of the following is associated with the rough ER

ribosomes

the phospholipids and cholesterol that are used to form membranes are synthesized in the

smooth ER

Eukaryotic cells differ from prokaryotic cells in all of the following except that

eukaryotic cells have very little DNA compared to prokaryotic cells

electron microscopes and light microscopes work the same way in principle but differ in that electron microscopes

can resolve much smaller structures, use beams of electrons to illuminate the specimen instead of light, can visualize the inside of a cell, use magnets to focus the illumination instead of flass lenses

the nucleoulus is

an area in the eukaryotic nucleus where ribosomes are constructed

flagellated bacteria

can move toward a favorable environment

what of the following is not characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?

nuclear membrane

what is the fate of defective or malfunctioning organelles in cells?

they are broken down by lysosomal digestive enzymes

the golgi apparatus receives vesicles that arise at

the ER

a plant cell adapted for waste storage and disposal would probably contain a large number of

vacuoles

cells must possess all of the following except

the nuclear envelope

how do substances move through the golgi apparatus?

they are carried in vesicles from one part of the Goli apparatus to the next and they are carried in vesicle membranes from one part of th eGolgi apparatus to the net

what is the meaning of the term prokaryotic

before the nucleus

secreted proteins would be synthesized on ribosomes

on the rough ER

the correct pathway of information flow in the cell

DNA, RNA, protein

what buds off of the golgi complex?

vesicles

which pair of organelles is responsible for energy supply to eukaryotic cells

chloroplasts and mitochondria

endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis

of lipids, more ER, and testosteroe

which statement accurately describes the interaction between ER, ribosomes, and Golgi bodies in the export of protein from the cell?

ribosomes manufacture proteins which travel through the ER to be packaged by the Golgi bodies for export

what is the function of a plant cell vacuole

storage of wastes and support of the cell

DNA located in which of the following

plant cells, prokaryotic cells, animal cells and chloroplasts

of the following cell components which is composed primarily of protein?

cytoskeleton

phospholipids

are found in cell membranes

which of the following is capable of converting light energy to chemical energy

chloroplasts

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