Sports Psychology chapter 6

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providing performance feedback

A) Knowledge of results helps ppl improve their performance through providing specific feedback in regards to the correctness (or incorrectness) of their response and enhancement of their motivation
B) Feedback needs to be specific and linked to ones performance
1) Example: would not be appropriate to tell a gymnastics student great job in a skill they are having trouble learning
2) Instead athletes should be informed how to perform skills correctly

benefits of feedback

1) When given about performance can benefit participants in many ways specifically via motivation and instruction

motivational feedback

a) Attempts to facilitate performance through enhancement of confidence, inspiration for greater effort and energy expenditure and the creation of a pos mood
- Ex-hang in there etc
3) Feedback good when used as a valuable reinforcement to a performer which could also in turn stimulate pos or neg feelings
a) Example- ppl who receive specific feedback indicating poor performance may become dissatisfied with their current lvl of performance and this feedback could help motivate them to improve
b) Necessary for athlets and exerciser to experience feelings of satisfaction which function as pos feedback when subsequent feedback indicates a need for improvement

Goal setting programs

a) To have clear objective knowledge of results which is critical for goal setting to be productive
- Why? Bc effective goals are specific and measurable so inidivudals benefit from getting specific feedback to help them set goals of their own

instructional feedback

a) Provides info about:
- Specific beaviors that need to be performed
- Lvls of proficiency that need to be achieved
- A performers current lvl of proficiency in their desired skills and activities
- When skills are highly complex the instructional the instructional pt of knowledge of results that much more important
b) Breaking down complex skills into their component pts creates a more effective learning environment which gives learners specific info regarding how to perform each phase of the skill

method of amplication theory

abbreviations are MAE for short.- Based on the assumption that participants learn to correct their movements through their mistakes
- Essentially participants asked to amplify their principal erroro during a given performance through this instruction can achieve better understanding what not to do making them more capable of readjusting their entire motion during subsequent attempts.

types of feedback

1) Verbal praise, facial expression or pats on the back effectivr ways to reinforce desirable behaviors (i.e. good examples of pos feedback)
2) The rewards via feedback becomes effective when specific pleasing behaviors are identified.
a) Example: track coach may tell a sprinter, way to not push with the legs (when getting ready to go into a run)
3) Good when what is being done well is clearly identified

arguments supporting punishment in learning behavior

1) Despite what some say punishment can ctrl & change neg behavior and it has advocates amonst coaches and teachers who use punishment to improve their learning and performance
2) Number of arguments which support the use of punishment in athletic settings:
a) Strong expectation of cooperation and a strong animosity toward wrongdoers therefore, the use of punishment to deter future cheating or wrongdoing is supported
b) Indiividuals which cheat while they benefit short term experience signifigantly lower rewards in the future due to their wrongdoings (e.g. violators of MLB's substance abuse policy tend to never make it into the hall of fame)
c) Assigning punishment to wrongdoes provides others (e.g. teammates) an assurance that all ppl responsible for their actions and their impact on others
d) Seems acceptbale for cowches to deter inappropriate or unacceptable behaviors through self-assured, significant and timley punishment bc this sens signals to potential violators that they need to follow the rules established by their teams or they will suffer the consequences.
e) Result from 157 studies showing indiviuduals experiencing corporal punishment show them at risk for developing emotional and behavioral problems

Arguments against punishment in learning behavior

1) Punishment can be degrading or shame producing specifically when ppl see their image or standing ass lowered in the eyes of others
2) Shame and guilt seen as closely tied to failure or weakness when connected to the attainment of a standard expectation, belief or value
3) Punishment tends to arouse fear of failure and athletes who fear failure aren't motivated and by and don't enjoy the fruits of their victory but instead are only trying to avoid the agony of defeat.
4) Research has indicated that athletes with a high fear of failure don't only perform more poorly when competing but are more likely to get injured, enjoy the sport experience less and drop out of the sport
5) Punishment can unwittingly reinforce undesirable behaviors by drawing attention to it. For example, signaling out a disruptive student provides this student with the attention they desire. This punishment reinforces and strengthens the very behavior it meant to eliminate.
6) Punishment creates unpleasant aversive learning environmnetss, produces hostility and resentment btw coaches and athletes but over time students athletes may lose motivation and become discouraged due to frequent discouragement.
a) Undesirable behaviors may not be eliminqted but instead be suppressed only when the threat of punishment is present (e.g. an exerciser may put in more effort for an aerobics class when the leaders is watching them but slack off when they aren't being watched)

making punishment effective

1) May be necessary at times to remove unwanted behaviors.
2) Needs to be consistent by giving everyone the same type of punishment for breaking similar rules
3) Behavior should be punished and not the person doing the behavior.
4) Important to convey to an indiivudal that it is their behavior which needs changing
5) Allow athletes to have input in making up punishments for breaking rules
6) Don't use physical activity as a punishment
7) Important to make sure that punishment isn't perceived as a reward or attention
8) Imposement of punishment should be interpersonal and ppl shouldn't be berated or yelled at but simply informed of their punishment
9) Athletes shouldn't be punished for making mistakes during game time
10) No embarrassing athletes in front of team or classmates
11) Punishment should be used sparingly and enforced when used
12) Other teammates shouldn't be imposed for an individual teamamtes mistake
13) Punishment needs to be age appropriate
14) Athletes need to understand the reason for "x" punishment

behavior modification

A) Has been given many names when being related to sport psych including:
1) Contingency management
2) Behavioral coaching
3) behavior modification
B) All of the names refer to attempts to structure ones environment via the systematic use of reinforcement, especially during practice
C) Generally behavioral techniques are used in sport and physical activity settings to help ppl stay task oriented and motivated throughout training periods.

evaluation of behavioral problems

1) Evidence suggests that systematic reinforcement technqieus can effectively modify various behaviors including specific performance skills and coaching and teaching behaviors along with reduced errors and these techniques have successfully changed attendance at practice, increased output by swimmers in practice, fitness activities and gymanistics performance etc.

feedback and reinforcement in football

a) Classic study regarding feeback and reinforcement in football by komacki and Barnett in 1977
- Used feedback and praise to improve specific footall performance skills
- Barnett coached a op warner footnall team and wanted to kno2 if his players had improved in their basic offensive plays
- Barnett and Komaki targeted 3 specific plays (plays A,B & C) run from the wishbone offense (formation which requires specific psotioning of running backs and QB) and 5 players (Cntr, QB and Running backs) responsible for the plays proper execution.
- Study broke each play into 5 stages (e.g. 1 play included a QB-cntr exchange, QB right ½ back fake, fullback blocking @ the end, a QB decision to pitch or keep and a QB action.
- Post collecting data during an intial baseline period (1o practices or games) coaches systemqtically reinforced and provided feedback for plays A,B and C this feedback included:
• A demonstration fo correct behaviors @ each stage
• Checklist of pts that were successfully executed
• Praise and recognition for performing each stage correctly
- To test the effectiveness of the behavioral program authors compared the percentage of stage performed correctly for each play during baseline and reinforcement (est. 2 wk periods). Post these 2 wks correct performancses increased on play A from 62-82% at baseline for play A, for play B from 54% to 82% and play C from 66-80%.

behavioral coaching in golf

- Behaviorial program which targeted the performance of novice golfers (O'Brien & Simek,1983) using a type of behavioral change program called backward chaining

backward chaining

• Approach where the last step in a chain is first established (e.g. getting a ball in a hole) and the last step is paired with the next-to-last step (e.g. driving or chipping the ball onto the green) etc. with the steps finally progressing back to the beginning of the chain
• In the case of golf the last step in the chain would be putting on the green in the hole
• Putting the ball into the hole in the smallest # of strokes is the goal in golf and successful putt therefore needs to be reinforced. Chipping onto the green=the focus and putts are made as reinforcement the fairway shot then comes followed by a successful chip and an =lly successful putt & the final step involves driving the ball off the tee box followed by successful completion of the previous 3 steps. Following this comes the fairway shot followed by a successful chip and an =lly successful putt. The final step involves driving the ball off the tee box, followed in turn by successful completion of the previous 3 steps.
i) This behavioral approach of backward chaining compared to traditional coaching methods used in training novice golfers resulting in golfers receiving the backward chaining instruction scoring est. 17 strokes lower than golfers in traditionally coached ctrl groups whos cored around 1 stroke p/hole (18 holes) better than traiditonal coaching groups

Feedback during training sessions

- Needs to contain relevant info to ensure correct skill performance
- Appropriate feedback needs to be given to performance or behavior ( e.g. excessive praise fos success at an easy task or for mediocre performance would be inappropriate)
- Feedback during practice needs to be given ASAP but during competition is it advised to wait a little before providing feedback allowing for performers to clear their minds and become more receptive to feedback
- Feedback needs to promote taking personal responsibility for performance and behavior
- Needs to be clear, short and geared to a performers age lvl
d) Rec and shaping in b-ball (Siendentop,1980) behavioral program which targeted performance and nonperformance behaviors via bballl
- MS b-ball coach distressed that his players criticized each so much during practice while failing to focus on shooting skills
- Coach decided to award pts for daily practice for lay-ups, jump shots, fre throw drills and for being a team player (ie. Encouraging teammates during play and practice)
• Acc to this syst pts deducted if coach saw instances of bad attitudes and an eagle effort board was posted in a conspicuous place in the main hall enroute to the gym and outstanding students got an eagle effort award at the postseason banquet
- Program produced dramatic changes
• After 1 wk jump shooting went up from 37-51%, lay ups from 68-80% and free-throw shots from 59-67%
• Most dramatic improvement in team player category before implementing th ebehaviroal program the coach saw 4-6 instances of criticism p/ each practice session along with 10-12 occurences of encouragement amongst teammates. After only a few sessions more than 80 encouragin statement rec during practice sessions.

inapropriate tennis behaviors

- More recent study using case study sdesign by galvin and ward,1998
- Aimed to reduce the amount of inappropriate on court behavior in collegiate tennis players such as racket, ball, behavior, verbal and physical of self abuse.
- # of each players inappropriate behaviors posted on the bulletin board in the players locker room
- To derive these #s investigators observed all challenge matches (competitive matches btw teammates) during practive and rec the inappropriate behaviors
- All players told of their inappropriate behaviors during an initial meeting and baseline period and provided with strategies to reduce such behaviors.
- All 5 players told of their inappropriate behaviors during sn initial meeting and baseline period and provided with strategies to reduce such behaviors.
- All 5 players were followed through a competitive tennis season and had a signifigant reduction in inappropriate behaviors specifically the behaviors they had at first exhibited most frequently.
• Ex- 1 player avg more than 11 berbal abuses p/match during the baseline period and this number went down to a little more than 2 p/match by seasons end.

What the creation of effective behavioral programs has lead to

1) Emphasis on specific, detailed and frequent performance measurements and behavior and the measurements are used to evaluate the programs effectiveness
2) Recognition of the distinction btw developing new behavior and the maintenance of existing behavior at acceptable lvls and the offering of pos procedures used to accomplish both
3) Encouragement of participants to improve against their own past lvl of performance therefore recreational athletes recovering from injuries performance shouldn't be compared to the performance of professional athletes but instead against what Phys therapist believe is optimal for their parituclar circumstances
4) The emphasis on behavioral procedures which have been demonstrated by research to be effective (more of a science than an art)
5) Emphasis on coaches, teachers or leaders needs to carefully monitor behavior in asystematic way (e.g. a videotape beahviroal checklist) so that ineffective behaviors can be eliminated
6) Encouragmenet of leaders to get feedback from participants in regards to the effectiveness of many aspects of behavioral intervention
7) Behaviors need to be targeted
a) When one initiates a program a couple of behaviors need to be identified to work with
b) If pariticipants focus on changing only a couple of behaviors they can avoid being overwhelemed and confused by trying to do too much too gast
c) Dififcult to observe simultaneously what all participants do by tracking only 1-2 behaviors one can get a more accurate record of targeted behaviors and give them fair reinforcement
d) Social and emotional behavior appropriate targed behaviors along with the typical performance behavior
e) Behaviors should be targed post carefully assessing their parituclar needs in the program
8) Target behaviors need to be defined
- Behavior needs to be defined in away that makes them readily observable and easy to record
- Attendance, foul shooting, %, # of laps done, and correct execution of skills relatively objective concrete ehaviors. Such behaviors as hustle and effort more difficult to pinpt and measure.
- Ppl need ot be told specifics in regards to what types of behaviors expected so they can be modified accordingly
9) Behaviors need to be recorded
a) Observable behaviors should be rec via a checklist so participants can get feedback.
b) For max efficiency and effectiveness checklists need to be simpleand straightforward
c) Head-coaches, teachers tend to be enlisted to help
d) If others are asked to come to help it is necessary to teach them to rec their behaviors to ensure reliability
10) Meaningful feedback should be provided
a) Detailed feedback enhances motivation
b) Simple set of checkmarks o an easy to read graph which displays clearly a persons progress encourages self praise, teachers or coaches praise and knowledge of improvement which can all increase motivation
c) Public display of this feedback can stimulate peer interaction that may stimulate peer interaction may also reinforce increase output
d) Simultaneously ppl find this type of display listed in c as embarrassing and aversive.
e) Focus should always be on self improvement
f) Creation of unhealthy competiton should be avoided among teammates
g) Good ideas to hold team meetings to help determine the specific location and nature of public display
11) Outcomes should be clearly stated
a) Athletes and students want to be clear regarding what behaviors are required and and what will be the result of their performing or not performing said behaviors
b) If eligibility o start in the next game is the reward for specific practice behaviors coaches should clarify this outcome along with specific behaviors athletes need to demonstrate
12) The reward syst should be tailored
a) Many athletes and students already very well motivated but need systematic programs to direct their motivation
b) The less motivated athletes and stduents are the more they may at first need to rely on external rewards
c) Strongest type of motivation over the long haul=internal motivaton which needs to always be encourage and it is important to consider diff ppls diff when implementing behavioral change programs.
13) choosing targedted behaviors and having them monitored too
a) direct observation of single behaviors
- single behaviors need to be observed ppl with training to ensure greater reliability
- some observed behaviors in previous research include swimming stoke erros, srving accruancy in volleyball, defensive skills of football players, skating speed of speed skaters, skills performed the right way at gymnastics practices
b) behavioral checklists to rec multiple behaviors
- research and consultants can develop checklists which enable observers to monitor many behaviors including the coaching behavior assessment syst, self talk and gestures rating scale, the teaching ebhaviors of expert basketball coaches, checklists of components of correct from of sprinters in track etc.
c) athlete self monitoring
- self monitoring can at times intiate desried changes of behavior
- some examples of skills that can be self monitiored conssits of coching skills, laps swum during swim practices and good golf shots
d) videotape practice, precompetiton and competiton
- behaviors that are ideotaped provide permanent records of behaviors for observational analysis
- viedtapes can be sued to assess strengths and weaknesses of opponents along with compoentns of effective or ineffective precompetition of preperformance routines
e) postperformane videotape reconstruction of verbal behavior
- visual stimuli from competitive envrionemnt captured on videotape may cue recal of verbal beahviors and emotions experienced during performances.

entrinsic rewards

outward rewards like trophies etc. i.e. that ppl would be motivated to plays sports or participate in exercise for such rewards as winning the PVAC Basketball championship

intrinsic motivation

ppl with this strive inwardly to be competent and self determining enroute to master their current task
2) ppl who enjoy competition like the action and excitement and focus on haing a good time while doing so
3) ppl that want to learn skills to the best of their aility
4) ppl who participate in sport and exercise because they love doing it as well as those who do so for pride reasons

knowledge as an intrinsic motivator

ppl engage in activities for the pleasure and satisfaction they experience while learning, xploring or trying to grasp something new (e.g. learning a new play on a basketball team)

accomplishment as an intrinsic motivator

- ppl that engage in activities for the pleasure and satisfaction they feel when creating something or mastering tough skills (e.g. mastering difficult dives they have been working on for some time)

stimulation as an intrinsic motivator

- ppl that engage in activities to experience pleasant sensations like fun, excitement and aesthetic pleasure like climbing a mt

integrated regulation

extrinsic motivator that is the most developmentally advanced form of extrinsic motivation. This also is shown by how activity is personally important due to valued outcome instrad of interest in the activity solely for itself (e.g. PE teachers training diligently for the valued outcome of finishing a marathon)

identified regulation

extrinsic motivator where when behaviors are highly valued, accepted and judged by ppl and performed willingly even if the activity itself is unpleasant (e.g. athletes that participate in sport bc they believe their involvement contributes to their growt and development)
- 3 kind s of intrinsic motivation along with integrated regulation and identified regulation all reflect feelings of want as opposed to ought and therefore have been found to positively relate to affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes why the threshold of autonomy where choice is more itnrnsic in nature is placed after identified regulation

introjected regulation

Extrinsic motivator where ppl are motivated by internal pords and pressures but their behaviors are still not considered self determined due to the fact that they are regulasted by external contingencies (e.g. exercisers who stay shape for reasons of gaiva like impressing the opposite gender)

identified regulation

extrinsic motivator where behaviors are highly valued, accepted and judged by ppl and performed willingly even if the activity itself is unpleasant (e.g. athletes that participate in sport bc they believe their involvement contributes to their growt and development)
- 3 kind s of intrinsic motivation along with integrated regulation and identified regulation all reflect feelings of want as opposed to ought and therefore have been found to positively relate to affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes why the threshold of autonomy where choice is more itnrnsic in nature is placed after

introjected regulation

ppl are motivated by internal pords and pressures but their behaviors are still not considered self determined due to the fact that they are regulasted by external contingencies (e.g. exercisers who stay shape for reasons of gaiva like impressing the opposite gender)

external regulation

extrinsic motivator defined as behaviors which are completely ctrled by external sources like rewards and constraints (e.g. athletic trainers who spend a lot of time in the training room to get a raise in salary are often externally motivated)

motivations which are neither intrinsically or extrinsically motivated

ppl experience pervasive feelings of incompetence and lack of ctrl (e.g. PE teachers who simply throw out balls due to not caring about teaching anymore display this)

harmonious passion (hp)

strong desire to engage in activiites freely as they become pt of ones identity
b) activities occupy an important but no toverwhelming place in ones identity (e.g. collegiate athletes with this type of passion towards their sport decide when to play and when to do other things like study or see friends)

obsessive passion (op)

an unctrlable desire to paritricpate in activities that don't become pt of ones identity.
b) how ppl become ctrled by their activities (e.g. I have to do X) and therefore this conflict with other life activities (e.g. work or family, e.g. collegiate athletes with this type of passion toward their sport may at times end up playing their sports as oopposed to doing something else like studying)

some key findings related to passion and sport

...

social factors which affect extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

- success and failure (experiences that help define ones sense of competency
- focus of competition (competing againsts ones-self and some standard of excellence where improvement is the focus v. competing onese opponent where the focus is on winning)
- coaches behaviors (pos v. neg)
Additionally self determination theory argues that competence, autonomy and relatedness are the 3 basic human needs and the deg to which ppl are satisified will go along way in determining someones intrinsic motivation

psychological factors which can affect extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

need for competence ( a need to feel confident & self efficacious)
b) need for autonomy ( to have input into decisions or in some way own said decisions
c) need for relatedness (caring for others and hacing them care for you

how extrinsic rewards undermine intrinsic motivation

intuitively appears that combo of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation seem to produce more motivation (e.g. adding extrinsic rewars like trophies to activities that are intirnscially motivating like intramural volleyball should increase motivation accrodignly and it wouldn't be expected to see these extrinsic rewards to bring intrnisc motivation down.
2) acc to most early researchers and practioners intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are seen as additive i.e. the more th e better but some not that extrinsic rewards could undermine intrinsic motivation (e.g. Einstein commented that exam are coercion that had such a deterring effect that after he had passed his final he found the consideration of any scientific problems distasteful to him for a whole yr.
3) when ppl see themselves as the cause of their behavior they consider themselves itrinsicially motivated
4) on the flip side: when ppl perceive the cause of their behavior qs external to themselves (i.e. doing something for $) they consider themselves extrinsically motivated and the more ppl are extrinsically motivated the less they will be intrinsically motivated.
D) according to research......
1) E.Deci (1971-72)-discovered that pariticpants whow ere rewarded with $ for participating in interesting activities later spent less time at it than ppl not paid.
a) acc to his original and classic study DEci paid pariticpants to play a Parker Bros mechanical game entitled SOMA consisting of many diff shaped blocks which can be arranged to form various patterns (pilots have shown this game to be intrinsically motivating)
- in a later play time the time these participants spent with the SOMA puzzles (as opposed to reading diff interesting magaizines) significantly less (106 sec) than the time (206 sec) spent by ppl who hadn't been rewarded for playing with the puzzles
2) being paid for working on an intrinsically interesting activity decreased a persons intrinsic motivation for the said activity

the cognitive evaluative theory (CET)

B) Subtheory of the moe genral self determination theory hwhcih focuses on three basic psychological needs:
1) Needs for effectance
2) Relatedness
3) Autonomy
C) According to DEci and Ryan ppl are inherently motivated to feel connected to others within social mileu (relatedness) to function effectively in that mileu (effectance) and to feel a sense of personal intiative in doing so or autonomy.
a) In short intrinsic motivation, performance and cognitive development are maximized within social contexts which provide with opportunities to satisfy these basic needs
D) While SDT focuses on intrinsic motivation it doesn't elaborate on the causes of intrinsic motivation but CET was developed to help expl variability in intrinsic motivation
E) According to the SDT approach CET hypothesizes that any events which affect ppls perceptions of competence and feelings self determination in the ened will affect their lvls of intrinsic motivation
1) These events (e.g. distribution of rears, quantity and quality of feedback and reinforcement) have 2 functional components
a) Ctrl
b) Informational
2) Both the info and ctrl aspects can bring up or down intrinsic motivation depending on hwo they affect ones competence and self determination

locus of causality

a) Ctrling aspects of rewards relate to this
b) What causes a persons behavior in a given situation
c) If a reward is seen as ctrling a persons behavior then ppl will believe that the cause of their behavior (an external locus of causality) resides outside of themselves, and therefore intrinsic motivation goes down
d) Ppl tend to feel direct conflicts btw being ctrled by someones use of reards and their own needs for self-determination i.e. ppl intrinsically motivated do thiings bc they want to instead of for external reward.
e) When ppl feel ctrled by rewards (e.g. im only playing for the $) the reason for this behavior resides outside of themselves.
- Example: many college athletes feel ctrled by the pressure to win, compete for schoalrships etc.
2) According to research 6 salient ctrling strategies coaches used to ctrls athletes behavior which undermine intrinsic motivation:
a) Tangible rwards (e.g. coaches promise to rward athletes if they engage in certain training behaviors)
b) Ctrling feedback (coaches who pick up on all the neg aspects of athletes behaviors but say nothing pos and offer no suggestions for future improvement)
c) Excessive personal ctrl (e.g. coaches who interact with athletes authoritatively commanding them to do things through the use of orders, directives, ctrling questions and deadlines.
d) Intimidation behaviors (e.g. coaches who use the threat of punishment to push athletes to work harder or keep athletes in ln during training)
e) Promotion of ego-involvement (e.g coaches who evaluate athletes performance in front of their peers)
f) Conditional regard (e.g. coaches who say things to take athletes on a guilt trip telling them things like when you don't perform well....)
3) Contrastingly if reards re seen as cotnributors to an internal locus of csusality (i.e. the cause of ones behavior resides within them) intrinsic motivation increases
4) In these situations ppl who feel high lvls of self dtermination, perceive their behavior as detmined by their own internal motivation (e.g. sport and exercise programs which provide ppl with opportunities for input about the choice of activities, personal performance goals etc result in higher intrinsic motivation due to they creating an increase in personal perceptions of ctrl.

6 salient controling strategies coaches use to control athletes behavior which undermine intrinsic motivation

a) Tangible rwards (e.g. coaches promise to rward athletes if they engage in certain training behaviors)
b) Ctrling feedback (coaches who pick up on all the neg aspects of athletes behaviors but say nothing pos and offer no suggestions for future improvement)
c) Excessive personal ctrl (e.g. coaches who interact with athletes authoritatively commanding them to do things through the use of orders, directives, ctrling questions and deadlines.
d) Intimidation behaviors (e.g. coaches who use the threat of punishment to push athletes to work harder or keep athletes in ln during training)
e) Promotion of ego-involvement (e.g coaches who evaluate athletes performance in front of their peers)
f) Conditional regard (e.g. coaches who say things to take athletes on a guilt trip telling them things like when you don't perform well....)
3) Contrastingly if reards re seen as cotnributors to an internal locus of csusality (i.e. the cause of ones behavior resides within them) intrinsic motivation increases
4) In these situations ppl who feel high lvls of self dtermination, perceive their behavior as detmined by their own internal motivation (e.g. sport and exercise programs which provide ppl with opportunities for input about the choice of activities, personal performance goals etc result in higher intrinsic motivation due to they creating an increase in personal perceptions of ctrl.

functional signifigance of events

1) Third major element in CET
2) Essentially every reward has the potential of being ctrling and informational
3) How the reward will affect intrinsic motivation dependent on if the recipient perceives it as more crling or informational (e.g. it seems pos to recognize ppl or teams with trophies but while the rewards message seems to be about the athletes competence the players may see the coach as giving them rewards to ctrl their behavior (i.e. make sure they don't join another team in a yr)
4) Needs to be clear to partiicpants that rewards provide pos info about ones competence and not to cctrl their behavior
5) Generally perceived choice and pos ffedback bring out info aspect while rewards, tiem deadlines and surveillance make the ctrling aspect salient.

info aspect of rewards

1) Affects intrinsic motivation by altering someones lvl of competence
2) When ppl receive rewards for achievement like the MVP award this provides pos info about competence and should bring up intrinsic motivation
3) Essentially for rewards to enhance intrinsic motivation they need to be contingent on specific lvls of performance or behavior
4) Rewars or events which provide neg info about competence should decrease perceived competence and itrninsic motivation (e.g. if a coaches style is mainly critical some prticipants may internalize this as neg info about their value and worth which will decrease their enjoyment and intrinsic motivation while simultaneously striving for an award and not receiving it will decrease feelings of competence and lower intrinsic motivation)

how scholarships affect intrinsic motivation

1) 1 of the first assessments of how extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic motivations in sports settings was Dan Ryan 1977,80 study of scholarship and nonscholarship collegiate football players
a) Players on scholarship reported that they enjoyed football less than their nonscholarship coutnerpts
b) Scholarship football players displayed less intrinsic motivation each yr they held their scholarship making their lowest lvl of enjoyment occurring during their senior yr
c) Ryan later surveyed male and female athletes from diff schools I many sports and scholarship football players reported less intrinsic motivation than nonschlarship football players but male wrestlers and female athletes from 6 diff sports on scholarships reported higher lvls of intrinsic motivation than those not on scholarship
d) These results explainable via the distinction btw ctrling and info aspects of rewards and how scholarships can have info function-scholarships tell thletes that they are good especially informative to wrestlers and women that receive a lot less scholarships than other athletes.
2) Generally athleti scholarships can decrease or increase athletes lvls of intrinsic motivation depending on which is emphasized more, the ctrling or info aspect
3) Sometimes scholarships can be used by coaches as leverage to make their players play better i.e. play well so you wont be kicked off the team and lose your scholarship and under this cond and those like it scholarships ctrl aspect more important than its info aspect decreasing intrinsic motivation amongst scholarship players.

competition and intrinsic motivation

1) Competitive success and failure can affect intrinsic motivation
2) Competitive events containing both ctrling and info compoentns can influence both a perceived locus of causality and a perceived competence of partiicpants.
3) Via manipulation of success and failure which participants perceive on motor tasks many researchers have revealed that ppl have higher lvls of intrinsic motivation post success than failure
4) Success and failure have high info value in competiton and males show significantly higher lvls of intrinsic motivation post success than post failure
5) Females tend not to vary much across success and failure conditions suggesting that competitive success more important for males than females.
6) When males succeed they tend to feel good and exhibit high intrinsic interest in the task but when they lose they quickly lose interest and intrinsic motivation while females are less threatened by info containing competitive failure most likely die to their egos not usually invested in displaying success as much as their male counterpts but recent changes in womens sport seem to suggest that it may need to be reexamined if pariticpants still have these types of perceptions
7) Competitive success usully increases intrinsic motivstion while competitive failure tends to decrease intrinsic motivation
8) Winning or losing often determines someones intrinsic motivation during sports or exercise
a) Ppl who perceive themselves as performing well show higher lvls of intrinsic motivation than those with lower perceptions of success.
b) Winning & losing less important in the determination of intrinsic motivation than ppls subjective perception regarding their own performance.
c) The adage its not whether you win or lose but it is how you play the game applies in determining ones performances affect on their intrinsic motivation.
d) Essentially the focus of ones performance seems to be more important than the actual outcome.
- Example: Vallerand Gauvin and Halliwell (1986)- found that kids who were asked o compete against other children (i.e. interpersonal competition) on motor tasks displayed less intrinsic motivation than those instructed to just compete against themselves 9i.e. master). Other research has proved this too.

feedback and intrinsic motivation

1) Involves how pos and neg info from signifigant other affect ones perceived competence and subsequent intrinsic motivation.
2) Vallerands 1983 1st study investigated varying amounts of pos feedback to adolescent hockey players hwo performed in sumulated hockey scenarios were players go 0.6..12.18 or 24 pos statements from coaches while performing various hockey skills
a) Groups which received feedback got higher scores in perceived competence and intrinsic motivation than the no feedback group while there were no diff amongst the various feedback groups making the absolute wuantity of pos ffeedback seem less than the presence of a type of pos feedback.
b) 2nd study proved that using a balance task showed pos feedback producing higher vls of intrinsic motivation than neg or no feedback.
3) More recent study showed that very pos feedback like (youre one of the best in our grade at basketball) compared to mild pos feedback (Josh is avg at basketball) resulted in significantly more intrinsic motivation and greater intent to pariticpate in similar activities in the future.
4) These results underscore importance of quality of pos feedback and not just the #.

principles of effective use of intrinsic rewards

1) The best type of extrinsic rewards are novel creative and simple
a) In our er of exorbitant professional sports salaries often forgetten that the power of extrinsic rewards comes more from their meaning than their monetary value
b) Often its what the rwars symbolizes that is its true power.
c) Example: in the movie " A Beautiful Mind," John Nash eceives the noble prize for his work in economic theory although he suffered from mental illness despite the money and prestige surrounding the nobel prize nash received one of the most satisfying reards at the conclusion of the movie: in the pirnceton lunchroom his colleagues walked up to his table and laid down their pens in acknowledgement of his brilliance giving the pesn great symbolic value despite them having little monetary value.
d) Extrinsic reards need rto be given to enable athletes and not ctrl them
- When 1 gives individual honors athletes should be made sure to know that the reward is abut their competence as opposed ot their ctrl of the issue (e.g. a scholarship should be seen as a measure of competence and not something held over an athletes head)
e) Extrinsic rewards can help individuals wen they aren't motivated to participate in sports or exercise. (e.g. ppl may dislike biking on an exercise bike but external rewards can help them stick with it bc they know in the end it will help them get in shape
f) External rewards should be contigent on behavior
- To enhance motivation rewards should be earned (e.g. getting rewarded just for participation (as it occurs in sports leagues) is meaningless but getting rewarded for attending and working hard at all practices should fuel motivation
g) External rewards should be used sparingly.
- Instead motivational climates should be built which foster intrinsic motivation where athletes or exercisers can motivate each other in the pursuit of excellence.
- The less coaches or exercise leaders have to use external rewards the more likely the rewards will be seen as morivational as opposed to ctrling which will enhance feelings of self-determination.

determinants of intrinsic motivation which higher lvls of intrinsic motivation have proven to be related to

1) Playing or autonomous democratic v. ctrling coaches
2) Pariticpation in recreation v. competitive leagues
3) High v. low lvls of perceived competence
4) High v. low lvls of perceived ctrl

strategies to use to help icrease intrinsic motivation

providing for successful experiences, giving rewards contingent on performance, use of verbal and nonverbal praise,varying content and sequence of practice drills, the need for participant involvement in decision making, and setting realistic performance goals.

essential elements of the flow state

Factors which undermine intrinsic motivation. They include balancing challenge and skills, complete absorption in an activity, having clear goals, merging ones action and awareness, totally concentrating on ones task at hand, loss of self consciousness, a sense of control, no goals or rewards external to the activity, transformation of time and effortless movement

flow

according to csikszentimihalyi when one is in the zone where everything is going well and you appear to be hitting on all cyclinders (e.g. making all your 3 pointers in a baskebtall game). This is achieved through being motivated to perform, achieving an optimal arousal level before performing, maintaining an appropriate focus, precomepttive and competitive plans and prep, an optimal physical preparation and readiness, optimal environmental an dsituational conditions, confidence and and maintaining a good mental attitude, team play and interaction and feeling good about performance

factors that prevent flow

nonoptimal physical prep and readiness such as injury, fatigue, or not feeling good physically. A nonoptimal environemntal or situational condition like external stresses, unwanted crowd responses, and uncontrollable influences of events. Lack of confidence or a negative mental state (e.g. negative thinking, self doubt or no control of ones mental state), inapropriate focus (e.g. thinking to much, worrying about what othersd are doing, and frustration with ones teammastes effort), problems with precompetitive preparation like ppoor precompetitive prep, distraction before competiting or interruptions to precompetitive prpe, a lack of motivation to perform like not havin goals not being challenged or being not very aroused or motivated, being in a nonoptimal arousal levlel precompetiton (e.g. not being relaxed or to relazeD), negative team play and interactions (e.g. neg talk within the team), and perofrmance going poorly like poor technqiues or things not going according to plan.

factors that disrupt flow

A nonoptimal environmental or situational influence(s) (e.g. what opposition is doing or negative ref deicisions), problems with physical readiness or state (e.g. lack of physical prep or feelings of fatigue), problems with team performance or interactions (e.g. team not playing well or a lack of team interactions), an inappropriate focus (e.g. daydreaming or a loss of concentration), or doubts or putting pressur eon ones self (e.g. self doubt or putting pressure on ones self)

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