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Harding University

An animal that possesses an ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

triploblastic

A branching diagram whose branches represent real lineages that occured in the evolutionary past

Phylogenic Tree

Small spined extrusomes in ciliate protozoa that are discharged apparently to aid in the capture of prey or to serve as a defensive mechanism

scelerocytes

Out of all metazoans, members of ____ have the smallest nuclear genome but the largest mitochondrial genome.

Placotoa

Similar cells grouped together to perform a common function

Tissue

A derived charater shared by members of a clade

symplesiomorphy

The protozoan group that contains only endoparasitic forms

apicomplexa

The minute, needle-like structures that act as a skeletal support system in sponges

Spicules

______ is a fibrous protein found in connective tissue, and probably the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom

Collagen

A branching diagram representing a nested heirarchical pattern of clades

Cladogram

Osmoregulation in some protozoa is carried out chiefly by a structure called

Control vacuole

The tough protien fibers sometimes found in sponge skeletons are of a substance called

spongin

Serial repetition of similar body segments along the longitudinal axis of the body

metamerism

"An irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms, diagnosably distinct from other such groupings, and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and decent" describes the

Phylogenetic Species Concept

The structure in Euglena that functions to orient it to light is the ____ or eyespot.

Stigma

Internal buds of sponges that can withstand adverse conditions are

gemmules

A variety of nonnervous cells that insulate neurons and serve various supportive functions is

neuroglia

Species that have very restricted geographic distributions are called

endemic

Gametic nuclei arising by meiosis and forming a zygote within the same organism that produced them is a process called

autogamy

The water outlet in sponges is known as

osculum

Which statement most closley represents the diversity of animal patterns resulting from the Cambrian time period

About 100 phyla evolved by the end of the Vambrian and there are now about 32 surviving animal phyla

Which is NOT a major goal of systematic zoology?

Group animals based on their destructiveness or usefulness to human activity

The most correct usage of the term "protozoa" is

As an informal cluster of groups with complicated and uncertain phyletic relationships

Which one of the following hypotheses regarding the origin of metazoas has the most support?

Metazoa arose from a colonial flagellates form similar to Volvox which became independent and specialized.

A blastula develops into which state as the gut cavity develops?

Gastrula

The classic Linnaean ranks for animals, from largest and most inclusive to smallest and least inclusive, is as follows:

Domain, kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species

Compared to metazoans, the correct perspective on cellular organization of unicellular eukaryotes is

They are complex and must accomplish within a cell the functions that several specialized cells accomplish in metazoa

Which statement about adult sponges is false?

Their bodies are aggregations of one cell type

Which type of tissue lines body cavities and covers body surfaces?

Epithelial tissue

Character similarity that results from common embryology and therefore ancestry is called

Homology

Nutrition in unicellular eukaryotes is best described as

All of the choices are correct

The order in which a drop of ink would pass by the structures in a sponge is

Ostia-spongocoel-osculum

Blood is an example of a tissue known as

Connective

Which of the following terms is NOT correctly associated

Monophyly- one group formed from animals with two separate ancestors

Long, thin pseudopodia supported by axial rods of microtubules are

Axopodia

The simplest of canal systems is found in the

Asconoids

Which of the following types of tissue provides movement for and throughout the entire body?

Muscle tissue

Characters used to distinguish one group from another must be

Any or all of the above

Which of the following represents the arrangement of microtubules in axonemes of cilia?

Nine peripheral pairs of microtubules plus one central pair

The extracellular matrix found in sponges is

Mesohyl

Which tissue recieves, interprets, and produces a response to stimuli?

Nervous tissue

A taxon is monophyletic if it

Includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants

At the end of the oral groove in a Paramecium ciliate is a mouth structure called the

Cytostome

The outer thin, flat, epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges are

Pinacocytes

Animals with bilateral symmetry

Are better adapted for directed forward movement than radilly symmetrical organisms

Which of the following is NOT an importand criterion for species recognition among the many definitions?

Possession of distinct morphological differences

Most of the time, although they usually have other options, protozoans reproduce by

Asexual cell division

A sponge feeds by

Beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells

Animals that have one solid mass of tissue rather than tissues and organs nestled inside a body cavity are

Acoelomate (and triploblastic)

Museum type specimens are kept as "name bearers" for comparison when potentially new species are discovered. However, the origional use of type specimens reflected a sense of the "ideal" or "perfect" specimen as seen in the _____ species concept.

Typological

During conjugation in most ciliates

Haploid micronuclei are exchanged

Cells that move about in the mesohyl and digest particles and may specialize for other functions are

Archaeocytes

Animals with organs in a cavity that is not completely lined with mesoderm are

Pseudocoelomate

G.G. Simpson provided a definition of an evolutionary species as "a single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate." How does this compare with the biological species concept of Mayr?

Mayr's definition is limited to sexually reproducing organisms whereas Simpson's theoretically coers all life

A protozoan with both plant-like photosynthesis and animal-like motility is most likely a

Euglenoid

Cells responsible for water flow and capture of some particles are the

Choanocytes

The difference between schizocoelous and enterocoelous organisms is

A big difference in how the true coleom forms from mesoderm: from the gut or blastopore region.

Protozoans in the genus Trypanosoma cause

African sleeping sickness and Chagas disease

If you press a sponge through a coarse cloth bag, the cells will

Reassemble into many smaller sponges with each cell resuming its original job

Chalky fossils that formed the White Cliffs of Dover were produced by

Foraminiferans

The free-swimming larva of most sponges is a

Parenchymula

Which protozoan group has a complicated parasitic life cycle that nearly always involves the production of infective spores?

Apicomplexans

The demosponges

Are mostly marine but include the freshwater sponges

The chills and fever of Malaria are correlated with

escape of populations of merozoites from red blood cells

The largest impact that the loss of sponges would have on the enviroment would be

Loss of filtration

What are the functions of the macronucleus and one or more small micronuclei in Paramecium?

The micronucleus undergoes meiosis to produce haploid micronuclei that are exchanged in conjugation; the macronucleus is responsible for the "day-to-day" functions of the cell

Which of the following represents a method to compensate for surface-area-to-volume limitations?

All of the choices represent factors directly realated to the surface-area-to-volume ratio

A phylogeny based on evolutionary theory will

All of the choices are correct

Epithelial tissue is classified into

Simple and stratified epithelia

Which of the following represents analogous structures?

The wing of a bat and the wing of a butterfly

The point of fertilization occurs when

The sperm nucleus and egg nucleus unite to form a zygote

The traditional view of cnidarians relative to germ layers is that cnidaria possess

Two germ layers, ectoderm, and endoderm

The rRNA evidence and similarities in complex biochemical pathways support which hypotheses on the origin of metazoa

Metazoa arose from a colonial flagellates form similar to Volvox which became independent and specialized

Generally, only one sperm fertilizes an egg because

When the first sperm membrane fuses with the egg membrane, it separates the fertilization membrane and forms a barrier to other sperm

Which of the following is not a class of the Phylum Platyhelminthes?

Nemertea

The ____ stage is best adapted for cnidarians living in colonies while the ___ stage helps in dispersal and survival in open oceans.

Polyp, medusa

Eggs with very little yolk that is evenly distributed in the egg are called

Isolecithal

Tissues that seem to violate the cell theory because the nuclei are not separated by cell membranes are

Syncytial

The unique feature(s) of a cnidarian nervous system is/are

all of the choices are correct

The function of the contractile vacuole in protozoa is

Water balance

The effect of yolk on cleavage is that

Yolk slows down and indirectly determines the type of cleavage to take place

The nercous system of a freshwater planarian consists of

A simple brain of ganglion cells leading to a ladder-type nerce network

Throughout most cnidarian groups, the basal or pedal disc serves to

Attach the cnidarian to the substrate

Zoologists used to refer to animals as "simple" and "advanced." Now it is more scientifically accurate to use

"Ancestral" and "derived," since some early forms became very complex and some highly evolved forms are derived from them but lost complex characters and secondarily became more "simple"

Cleavage on the surface of the yolk of the chicken egg is partial because cleavage furrows cannoy cut through; this is called

Meroblastic

Ribbon worms are

All of the choices are correct

The class of radiate animals with the most conspicuous medusa stage is

Schphozoa

Specialized archaeocytes that secrete spicules are

Sclerocytes

A solid ball of cells with a hollow cavity inside is the

Blastula

The monogenetic flukes

Are mostly ectoparasites

Ctenophores capture food by

Colloblasts

In nearly all metazoa, "germ layers" is a term that describes

Mesoderm, ectoderm, and endoderm

The large posterior attachment organ of the adult monogenean is a/an

Opisthaptor

Which is NOT a factor in cephalization?

Concentration of the sensory organs to increase sexual copulatory function

Sea anemones and corals lack

A medusa stage

The region used for the attachment of a tapeworm is called the

Scolex

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