A&P 2 chapter 18

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vitamin d

promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus

B vitamins

essential for normal cellular metabolism, involved in the oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and water soluble
grouped because they are in the same foods

pernicious anemia

condition associated with lack of instrinsic factor and decrease absorption of cyandsalamin

instricsic factor

regulates the absorption of B12

panthothenic acid

functions as part of coenzyme A

excess niacin

causes vomiting, diarrhea, and flushing

vitamin C

nessacary for producing collagen

iron

a trace element

escess calcium

causes deposition of calcium in soft tissue

excess potassium

excreted in urine

magnesium

synthesizing and using ATP

pica

compulsivly eat non-nutrienttive substances, such as laundry, staerch, dirt, hair and clay

kwasiorkor

may develope in children who have a dietary defincienies of proteins

the liver

stores vitamin A so a definciency may take years to be noticed

burning 500 calories a day or running 500 hundred calories a day will lead to the

loss of one pound of fat a week

60% or more carbohyrates mostly from grain and vegetables

good general dietary advice for athletes is to eat

macronutrients

carbohydrates, fats, and protein

carbohydrates

ribose and deoxyribose

12 hours

glycogen in an adult muscles has enough energy for anout

liver

cholesteral is synthesized chiefly in the

essential amino acid

a comple protein has adequent amount of

amino acids

synthesizes proteins for cellular structures and for enrgy
synthesize protein that function in various body processes

overweight

BMI of 27

positive energy balance

caloric intake exceeding caloric output is a

BMI over 30

obesity is defined as

vitamin A

an antioxident

Vitamin E

primary stored in adipose tissue and muscle

bones and teeth

calcium, phosphorus and hemeostatic mechaisms regulate their concentrations

producing melanin and myelin

copper is essential for

relative proportions of diet based on nutritional philosophies

food pyramids organize foods according to

metabolism

the ways that nutrients are altered chemically and used in cells to build up and break down compounds is called

monosaceharides

fructose, glucose, and galactose are

triglycerides

the most common dietary lipids are fat

bile

colesteral emoved from blood is excreted as a component of

amino acids

proteins and digested into

vitamin D, sterol

--------- can be synthesized from a ------- in the skin

albumin

riboflavin is carried in the blood combined with the blood protein called

niacin, tryptophan

--------- can be synthesized in human cells from the essential amino acid -----------

pyridoxin, pyriodoxal, pyridoxamine

forms of vitamin B6

bomb calorimeter

instument that measures the caloric contents of a food sample

iodine, idolized salt

------- is commonly added artifically to food in the form of --------

bulimia

hannah eats tramendous amounts of food, but takes a laxitive, vomits and exercises to keep from gainoing weight

lacto-vetetarian

sarah eats only dairy, and no meats or eggs

leptin

after eating ------ signals the hypothalamus to surpress appetite

lack of exposure to the sun

vitamin D deficiency especially in older people results from

essentials

nutrients necessary for health that human cells cannot synthesize

calories

units of hest that measure the amount of energy in food

75%

about --------- of the minerals in the body are in bones and teeth

magnesium

important in providing energy

magnesium

affects ATP production

15-21%

a group of girls at a middle school are all suffering from anarexia nervosa, counselor tell them it a sereous disease that -----------% die from

inhibitation of Ghrelin hormone

may help in weight lose

continuous glucose

cells of the nervous system most require

sugars that are part of DNA and RNA

ribose and deoxyribose

glycogen

provides short-term energy after cellular glucole supply are depleted

monounsaturated fat

olive oil

eggs

provides a source of complete protein

amino acids

a negative nitrogen result from a net loss of

deamination

a major step in extracting energy from proteins

8

How many amino acids needed for adults

factors that effect BMR

body size, body temperture, level of endocrine activity, gender

BMI

measures weight in proportion to height

a large calorie equals the amount of heat required to raise the tempurture of a kilogram of water by 1 degree celsium

...

deficiecy of vitamin A

cause night blindness

dificiency of vitamin D

causes osteomalacia

deficiency of vitamin K

treatment of antibiotics dugs is sometimes followed by

excess intake of vitamin D

leads to possibly dangerous overdose conditions

Fat-soluble vitamins

absorbed more readily in the preaence of bile salt

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