the study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and products.
A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.
A three-dimension, or round, representation of the Earth's surface
A system that uses information from satellites and databases about places
A system that uses satellite information to tell you where you are
Navigator's map, land size distorted, water size accurate
Flat map with curved edges, most widely used style
shows information such as countries, states, cities, and captial cities
shows what the surface of the Earth looks like; landforms and bodies of water
a special kind of map that distorts the shapes and sizes of countries or other political regions to present economic or other kinds of data for comparison.
shows directions on a map
four main parts of the compass NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST
The points of a compass that fall between the four cardinal points (Ex. Northeast, southeast, southwest, northwest).
explains the symbols or colors on a map
Lines of Latitude
imaginary lines that run east and west, they tell how far north and south of the equater (also called parallels)
Lines of Longitude
imaginary lines that run north and south on map or globe, they tell how far east and west of the prime meridian ( also called meridians)
Position on Earth's surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator).
a general description of where a place is
the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere
theory that states that there was a supercontinent that split into the continents of today
Ring of Fire
Collection of volcanoes rimming the Pacific Ocean, really a ring of subduction zones
the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake
A giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or landslide
the process that crumbles, cracks, and breaks rocks (slow change by wind and water)
the process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another
Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
Factors/Elements of Climate
Tilt of the Earth
23.5 degrees, causes the seasons
either of the two times of the year when direct rays of the sun hit the Tropics
twice-yearly time-each spring and fall-when the Sun is directly over the equator and the number of daylight and nighttime hours are equal worldwide
area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn receiving direct sunlight at sometime during the year making it almost always hot
also known as temporate latitudes regions are the areas that lie between 30 and 60 degrees in both hemispheres. in this region the climate undergoes the most seasonal changes in tempature and moisture
also known as Polar regions are located between 60 degrees and 90 degress latitudes, in both the Northern and southern Hemispheres. the Polar Regions are icy, cold area around the North and South Poles.
based on precipitation, can be HOT or COLD
Temps are warm all year, with definite dry and rainy seasons, have scattered grasses, shrubs and trees. herbivores dominate this biome
usually form in the interior of continents- too dry to support trees
Large grasslands in Venezuela/Colombia
a grassland region in Argentina and Uruguay
a treeless Artic region where the subsoil is permanently frozen
when trees are cut down faster than they can grow back
Slash and Burn Farming
is a method of land clearing for cultivation in which the forest is first cut down and then burned to add nutrients to the soil.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.
the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another.
Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.
To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native
A factor that leaves one with no choice but to leave one's current home (especially parental home), country, region, organization, or religion
factor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country
Tells where you are, sometimes "absolute" using lat. and long., sometimes "relative" using other areas as a reference.
a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character
the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the world
A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.
the altering of or adaption to the environment by people
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
the layer of rock that forms the Earth's outer layer
The innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle
The middle line of longitude, measuring 0 and dividing the globe into E / W hemispheres
imaginary line that runs around the earth halfway between the North and South Poles; used as the starting point to measure degrees of north and south latitude