# Semester Review I

## 60 terms · This is the 2009 study list for the SEMESTER EXAM, you can start studying here all you 2010ers!

### Geography

the study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and products.

### Map

A two-dimensional, or flat, representation of Earth's surface or a portion of it.

### Globe

A three-dimension, or round, representation of the Earth's surface

### GIS

A system that uses information from satellites and databases about places

### GPS

A system that uses satellite information to tell you where you are

### Mercator Map

Navigator's map, land size distorted, water size accurate

### Robinson Map

Flat map with curved edges, most widely used style

### Politcal Map

shows information such as countries, states, cities, and captial cities

### Physical Map

shows what the surface of the Earth looks like; landforms and bodies of water

### Cartogram

a special kind of map that distorts the shapes and sizes of countries or other political regions to present economic or other kinds of data for comparison.

### Compass Rose

shows directions on a map

### Cardinal Directions

four main parts of the compass NORTH SOUTH EAST WEST

### Intermediate Directions

The points of a compass that fall between the four cardinal points (Ex. Northeast, southeast, southwest, northwest).

### Legend/Key

explains the symbols or colors on a map

### Lines of Latitude

imaginary lines that run east and west, they tell how far north and south of the equater (also called parallels)

### Lines of Longitude

imaginary lines that run north and south on map or globe, they tell how far east and west of the prime meridian ( also called meridians)

### Absolute Location

Position on Earth's surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator).

### Relative Location

a general description of where a place is

### Plate Tectonics

the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere

### Continental Drift

theory that states that there was a supercontinent that split into the continents of today

### Ring of Fire

Collection of volcanoes rimming the Pacific Ocean, really a ring of subduction zones

### Epicenter

the point on Earth's surface directly above the focus of an earthquake

### Tsunami

A giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or landslide

### Weathering

the process that crumbles, cracks, and breaks rocks (slow change by wind and water)

### Erosion

the process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another

### Climate

Overall weather in an area over a long period of time

### Factors/Elements of Climate

latitude/elevation/ocean currents/terrain

### Tilt of the Earth

23.5 degrees, causes the seasons

### Solstice

either of the two times of the year when direct rays of the sun hit the Tropics

### Equinox

twice-yearly time-each spring and fall-when the Sun is directly over the equator and the number of daylight and nighttime hours are equal worldwide

### Low Latitudes

area between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn receiving direct sunlight at sometime during the year making it almost always hot

### Middle Latitudes

also known as temporate latitudes regions are the areas that lie between 30 and 60 degrees in both hemispheres. in this region the climate undergoes the most seasonal changes in tempature and moisture

### High Latitudes

also known as Polar regions are located between 60 degrees and 90 degress latitudes, in both the Northern and southern Hemispheres. the Polar Regions are icy, cold area around the North and South Poles.

### Deserts

based on precipitation, can be HOT or COLD

### Tropical Grassland

Temps are warm all year, with definite dry and rainy seasons, have scattered grasses, shrubs and trees. herbivores dominate this biome

### Temperate Grasslands

usually form in the interior of continents- too dry to support trees

### Llanos

Large grasslands in Venezuela/Colombia

### Pampas

a grassland region in Argentina and Uruguay

### Tundra

a treeless Artic region where the subsoil is permanently frozen

### Deforestation

when trees are cut down faster than they can grow back

### Slash and Burn Farming

is a method of land clearing for cultivation in which the forest is first cut down and then burned to add nutrients to the soil.

### Desertification

Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.

### Pollution

undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities

### Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

### Cultural Hearth

A center where cultures developed and from which ideas and traditions spread outward.

### Cultural Diffussion

the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another.

### Migration

Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.

### Immigration

To enter and settle in a country or region to which one is not native

### Push Factor

A factor that leaves one with no choice but to leave one's current home (especially parental home), country, region, organization, or religion

### Pull Factor

factor such as freedom or employment opportunities that attract a person to a country

### Location

Tells where you are, sometimes "absolute" using lat. and long., sometimes "relative" using other areas as a reference.

### Place

a specific point on earth distinguished by a particular character

### Movement

the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the world

### Region

A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.

### Human-Environment Interaction

the altering of or adaption to the environment by people

### Mantle

the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core

### Crust

the layer of rock that forms the Earth's outer layer

### Core

The innermost layer of Earth, located beneath the mantle

### Prime Meridian

The middle line of longitude, measuring 0 and dividing the globe into E / W hemispheres

### Equator

imaginary line that runs around the earth halfway between the North and South Poles; used as the starting point to measure degrees of north and south latitude

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