Comm Midterm Study Flash Cards
|Selection (1st step of perception)|| Process by which your mind and body help you isolate certain stimuli to pay attention to. |
|Organization (2nd step of perception)|| The classification of information in some way. |
*Perceptual Schema: Mental framework for organizing info into categories
|Physical constructs||Age, height|
|Role constructs||Social status, or profession (teacher, accountant, doctor)|
|Interaction constructs||how shy or outgoing you are|
|Psychological constructs||peoples thoughts and feelings causing us to notice how self-assured or insecure they might be|
|Interpretation (3rd step of perception)|| process of assigning meaning to the information that has been selected and organized for you|
*things you pay attention to, your personal experiences, your knowledge, and your closeness with the relationship
|non-linear perception|| although occurs in stages, process is far from linear. |
*how we interpret communication behavior depends on how we notice it which depends how we interpret it. (political views)
|Cultures influence perception|| *Compromises the learn, shared symbols, language, values and norms that distinguish one from another |
*diff cultures=diff ways of communicating
|Stereotypes influence perceptions||we apply stereotypes on others and mainly focus on those generalizations|
|Primary effect||first impressions are critical, set tone for all future interactions|
|Recency effect||most recent impression of a person's communication is more powerful than earlier impressions.|
|Perceptual set|| a person's disposition or bias to percieve only what he/she wants or expects to perceive |
"Ill see it when I believe it
*Expect a girl to be smaller and a boy to be stronger
|Attribution (has three dimensions)||an explanation the answer to a "why" question|
|Locus (1st dimension of attribution)||refers to where the cause of a behavior is "located"|
|Stability (2nd dimension of attribution)||whether the cause of a behavior is stable or unstable|
|Controllability (3rd dimension of attribution)||you make a controllable attribution for someones behavior when you believe the cause of the behavior was under the persons control|
|Self-serving bias (1st attribution error)|| tendency to attribute one's successes to stable internal causes and ones failures to unstable external causes|
*you did good on a test so you say you studied hard for it, you do bad you blame it on your professor's inability to teach well
|Fundamental attribution error|| attributing other people's belabors to internal rather than external causes |
*Someone cuts you off in traffic so you call them a jerk, rather than basing it on external as in maybe they were late because of traffic.
|Self concept||composed of those table ideas about who you are. It is your identity (set of perception a person has about who he or she is)|
|Self concept is multifaceted||parts of who you are but does not define you (asian, athletic, agnostic, asthmatic|
|Self concept is partly subjected|| characteristics that are based on impressions we have on ourselves rather than on objective facts...|
(intelligence, talent, looks)
but sometimes can be bad (low self esteem, over weight or ugly)
|self monitoring||aware of how you look and sound and how your behavior is affecting those around you|
|high self monitor||strongly focus on your appearance and on what you say and how you say it|
|low self monitor||spend less time and energy thinking about their appearance, more realized and straight forward|
|self-fulfilling prophecy||a situation in which an expectation prompts you to act and communicate in a way that makes that expectation come true|
*woke up in a bad mood and told yourself you were going to have a bad day. Therefor you treat everyone in a cranky and they treat you the same way in return.
*Expectations influence our communication behavior
|Image management||the process of behavioral adjustment to project a desired image.|
|Image management (Collaborative nature)|| Your image is not only based on your self perception but from those around you as well.|
*If others accept the image you portray the will tend to behave ways that encourage that certain image and vice versa.
|What does "Save face" mean?||Helping that person to avoid embarassment and pre serve dignity in a situation where dignity is threatened.|
|Face:||Desired public image|
|Face work||behaviors we use to project that image to others|
|face needs||important components of our desired public image|
|Fellowship face||need to have other like and accept us|
|autonomy face||our need to avoid being imposed upon by others (being in control and avoiding other people to make decisions for us)|
|competence face||our need to be respected to have others acknowledge our abilities and intelligence|
|face threats in socially marginalized groups|| *old people experience threats to their autonomy face because of the many physical and cognitive limitations associated with aging|
*people with disabilities experience this as well, they are unable to do activities that other can which threats their autonomy face
|Symbolic|| Each word represents a particular object or idea, but it does not constitute the object or idea itself.|
*Because it is symbolic that means that any words can be used to symbolize something, a car could be called "quell".
|Arbitrary||Based on random choice|
|Phonological rules||Deals with the correct pronunciation of a word, and they vary from language to language.|
|Syntactic rules|| govern the order of words within phrases and clauses|
* IE: What is your name?= are in proper order therefore makes sense. But if you ask in american sign language they would say= "your name what?" thus this would be incorrect because it violates the syntactic rules of american sign language.
|Semantic rules|| the meaning of individual words. those meanings may be arbitrary but they are agreed but all speakers of a language. |
* IE: When we hear the word lawyer we think of an attorney, not a car. The semantic rule connects a lawyer with an attorney and not with on of those other meanings.
|Programatic rules||deals with the implications or interpretations of statements. |
* Depending on HOW someones tells you "its nice to meet you" you determine whether the speaker is ACTUALLY happy to meet you or if it is in a sarcastic tone.
*Whether you determine if they are sad or mad pragmatic rules help you lead to your conclusion.
|Denotative||Literal meaning of a word, the way the dictionary defines it|
|Connotative|| Idea or concept that the word suggests. "cultural"|
*When you hear "home" it's connotative meaning would suggest "a place where you are comfortable and safe"
|Loaded language|| Words with strongly positive or negative connotations. "It was a rescue plan" or "It was a bailout" Are used to evoke positive or negative emotion|
* IE: Rachel Carson's writing
|Ambiguous language|| Ambiguous Language: Making a statement that we can interpret to have more than one meaning.|
* IE: replying to a question by saying "right" which could either mean turn right, or yet you are right turn left. (driving direction question)
|Sapir-Whorf|| Proposed that language shapes our views of reality.|
*Language influences the ways that members of a cultures see the world and that peoples attitudes and behaviors are reflected in its language.
|Linguistic Determinism|| We can conceive of something only if we have a term for it in our vocabulary. (Suggests that the structure of language determines how we think. )|
*IE: Someone who speaks that language could not experience envy because they could experience something only if they had words to describe it.
|Linguistic Relativity||Because language determines our perceptions of reality, people see the world differently depending on which language they speak. |
*EX: The language of Hopi Indians makes no distinction between nouns and verbs. Where we used nouns to refer to things and verbs to refer to actions; the hopi language describes about everything as a action. Thus they see the world as being constantly in motion.
|Understand how language can enhance credibility||Language is tied to issues of credibility. Our training or credentials with the use of our words can help portray us as confident, trustworthy communicators, or they can make us appear unsure of ourselves.|
|Cliches|| Words or phrases that were used over and over but have lost their effect due to overuse. |
*IE: When politicians talk about "the promise of change". After a while they don't have an effect on you, you are more persuasive if you use different words.
|Dialects Language|| *variations shared by people of a certain region or social class. |
*IE: Saying "Ya'll" or "Wicked good" we may enhance our credibility if we talk in a proper dialect that is familiar to the audience.
|Equivocation||*Language that disguises the speaker's true intentions through strategic ambiguity. Such as being in a dilemma where none of your options are a good one. SUCH AS, you are being asked a question about handling pressure. IE: "Well it depends there different types of pressure" |
*IE: MITT ROMNEY NEVER ANSWERS QUESTIONS BUT BEATS AROUND THE BUSH
|Weasel words||Related to Equivocation; intended to mislead listeners by implying something that they do not actually say.|
|Allness Statements||One specific for of weasel words, a statement that is implying that a claim is true without exception. |
⁃ Ex: "Experts agree that corporal punishment is emotionally damaging to children" This states that all experts agree, but they do not provide evidence to back it up. All this means though is that the reader believes that corporal punishment is bad.
|Persuasion||We use different kind of language to motivate others to think or act in particular ways. Words can be powerful.|
|Anchor and contrast||a strategy where you craft a request that is so large that few people will agree with you. (anchor) Then, After people reject the anchor you ask them for what you really want, which my comparison to the anchor will seem reasonable to most people and thus will encourage them to comply.|
|Norm of Reciprocity||When someone gives you some type of gift you are expected to return the favor, we feel a sense of duty to help people who have helped us. You might employ this technique when soliciting sponsorships for you 10k race be reminding people of ways in which you have helped them in the past.|
|Social Validation||⁃ Maintains that people will comply with requests if they believe that others are also complying. |
⁃ I.E-: When advertisers say "four out of five prefer" a certain brand they are hoping that you will want to buy the same brand that most people want and are buying.
⁃ This gives the idea that you will gain social approval by acting the way others act.
|Euphemisms|| a vague, mild expression that summarizes and substitutes for something that is blunter or harsher|
⁃ Used to sound less harsh and less explicit
⁃ Used to talk about sensitive or embarrassing tops without making others feel offended,
|Slang||use of informal words often are understood by others in a particular group. |
⁃ Serves to distinguish between those who do and not belong to their social networks.
⁃ Social, cultural, and religious groups adopt their own slang
⁃ neither inherently good or bad
⁃ reaffirm our membership in society
|HATE speech|| a specific form of profanity meant to degrade, intimidate, or dehumanize people based on their sex, national origin, sexual orientation, religion, race, political or moral views. |
*Calling people derogatory names, intimidating them, and advocating violent against groups qualify as hate speech.
|Understand how to improve your use of language|| a. Opinions from facts|
b. Appropriate levels
c. Own your thoughts and feelings (I-statement)
|Hearing|| The physical process of perceiving sound, where listening begins.|
⁃ In order to be able to listen, you have to hear the person first.
|Understanding|| Comprehending the meanings of the words and phrases you are hearing.|
⁃ If someones is speaking in a language you don't comprehend you can listen but won't be able to listen effectively.
|Remembering||Being able to store something in your memory and retrieve it when needed. |
⁃ Remembering what you hears is important for interpersonal communication.
⁃ EX: running into someone and you can't remember their name, remembering helps you avoid embarrassing or awkward situations. Thus remembering their name can help you communicate more effectively.
|Interpreting|| Besides hearing, understanding, and remembering you must be able to interpret the information you are receiving.|
⁃ Interpreting has two parts: First, is paying attention to all the speaker's verbal and non-verbal behaviors so you can assign meaning to the message.
|Evaluating||Judging whether the speaker's statements are accurate and true|
⁃ Separating facts from opinions and trying to determine the reason for the speaker's particular message.
⁃ Finally, you're considering the speaker's words in the context of other information you have from the speaker or others.
⁃ Helps you to be an active, engaged listener rather than a passive recipient of information.
|Responding||Indicating to a speaker that we are listening. "Giving feedback"|
|Informational Listening||Listening to learn.|
|Critical Listening||Evaluating or analyzing what we are hearing.|
|Empathetic Listening||Most challenging, when you are trying to identify with the speaker by understand and experiencing what he for she is thinking or feeling.|
|Appreciative listening||Listening for pure enjoyment. (funny story, or our favorite songs)|
|Stone walling||responding with silence, and a lack of expression on your face. (lack of interest)|
|Back channeling||Using facial expressions: nods, uh-huhs, "I understand"|
|Paraphrasing||Restating in your owns words what they are saying to show that you understand.|
|Empathizing||Conveying to the speaker that you understand and share his or her feelings|
|Supporting||Expressing your agreement for the speaker's opinion or point of view.|
|Analyzing||Providing your own perspective on what the speaker has said.|
|Advising||Communicating advice to the speaker about what he or she would do or think.|
|Noise||Anything that distracts you from listening to what you wish to listen to.|
|Physical Noise||actually sound|
|Psychological Noise||Comprises anything else we find distracting|
|Pseudolistening||You use feedback behaviors that make it seem as though you're paying attention even though your mind is elsewhere.|
|Information Overload||Being overwhelmed by huge amour of information.|
|Rebuttal Tendency||The propensity to debate a speaker's point and formulate a reply while that person is still speaking.|
|Closed Mindedness|| The tendency not to listen to anything which one disagrees with.|
⁃ Typically refuse to consider the merits of a speaker's point if it conflicts with their own views.
⁃ Politics, beliefs, religion.
⁃ Have to listen effectively even if we disagree
|Competitive Interrupting||⁃ Talking when it is not your turn to speak. |
⁃ Many interrupt to express support or enthusiasm, for clarification, or to warn the speaker on an impending danger.
⁃ Can also be a way to dominate a conversation. Make sure you get to speak more than the other person does and that your ideas and perspectives take priority.
|Confirmation Bias||Tendency to pay attention only to information that supports our values and beliefs while discounting or ignoring information that doesn't.|
|thesis statement||One sentence version of the message in your speech.|
|Introduction||Previews the information to be presented|
|Body||Composed of specific main points|
|Conclusion||Summarizes the main points|
|Transitions||Connects the main points to one another.|
|Rule of Subordination|| Specifies that some concepts in your speech are more important than others. |
⁃ Want to make the most important concepts your main points and the less important your subordinate points.
|Rule of Division||Specifies that if you divide a point into sub points, you must create at least two sub points.|
|Rule of Parallel Wording|| States that all points and sub points in your outline should have the same grammatical structure|
⁃ If you write some points as complete sentences, you should write them all that way.
⁃ Following the rule of parallel wording ensure that all the points have a uniform structure.
|Formal Outline||a structured set of all the points and sub points in your speech.|
|Speaking Outline||Abbreviated version of your formal outline|
|Definitions|| When your speech focuses on a concept that may be unfamiliar to your audience you can support your use of that concept by defining it explicitly. |
By identifying the source of your definition, you give that definition credibility.
|Examples||Another way to help your audience understand a concept is to give example of it.|
|Statistics (type of support)||Numbers usually identified through research that you can use to support your claims.|
|Quotations (type of support)||Quotes from people who are experts on your topic can serve as valuable supporting material.|
|Narratives (type of support)||Personal stories or testimonies to support your claim. Narratives can be compelling for listeners because they often make a topic feel personal in a way that examples or statistics do not.|
|Credibility (type of support)|| Has to be believable and trustworthy |
⁃ Using credible supporting material helps you make the points in your speech convincingly.
|Objectivity (type of support)|| ⁃ A source is objective to the extent that it presents information in an unbiased fashion. |
⁃ When evaluating a source's objectivity consider the extent to which that source has a political or financial interest in the content of the message
|Currency|| ⁃ Information that was produced or published recently is likely to be more up-to-date than older information. |
*Using recent supporting material is particularly important when you are speaking about issues that change continually, such as technology and world politics.
|Plagiarism||Knowingly using information from another source without giving proper credit to that source.|
|Global plagiarism||Stealing your entire speech from another source and presenting it as if it were your own. (Downloading a persuasive speech from the internet)|
|Patchwork plagiarism||Occurs when you copy words from multiple sources and put them together to compose your speech|
|Incremental plagiarism||failing to give credit for small portions of your speech such as a phrase or paragraph that you did not write. It is okay to use people's words in your speech but you need to use a verbal footnote ( a statement giving credit for the words of their original source)|
|Impromptu Speeches||Speeches delivered on the spot, with little or no preparation.|
|Extemporaneous speech||Speech that is carefully prepared to sound as though it is being delivered spontaneously.|
|Scripted speech||Is composed word for word on a manuscript and then read aloud exactly as it is written.|
|Memorized Speech||A speed that you compose word for word and then deliver it from memory.|
|Impromptu (Benefits and drawbacks)|| ⁃ Benefit: Requires little preparation|
⁃ Drawbacks: Lack of opportunity to prepare can be stressful. Thinking on the spot can be difficult
|Extemporaneous Speeches (Benefits and drawbacks)|| ⁃ Benefit: Provides the speaker with notes while making the speech sound spontaneous|
⁃ Drawbacks: Takes time to prepare. Difficult to do well under strict time constraints or if perfect grammar is required.
|Scripted Speech (Benefits and drawbacks)|| ⁃ Benefit: Provides maximum control over the verbal content. Ensure the speaker always knows what to say.|
⁃ Drawbacks: Takes much time to prepare. Use of a manuscript can be distracting for speaker audience.
|Memorized Speeches (Benefits and drawbacks)|| ⁃ Benefit: Allows high control over verbal content. Requires no notes, so speaker can use natural gestures and maintain eye contact.|
⁃ Drawbacks: Requires considerable effort to write and memorize. Can sound insincere. Speaker's memory can fail during delivery.
|Stage fright|| anxiety or fear that is brought on by performing in front of an audience.|
⁃ Common form of stress
|Facial expression||You can use your facial expressions during a speech to add impact to your words and credibility to your message|
|Eye contact||Effective speakers know that maintaing eye contact is important. Adds credibility, and allows you to connect better with your listener|
|Posture and Body Position||It is important to adopt a posture that is relaxed but confident. Slouching will make you seem uninterested in what you are saying.|
|Gesture||Gestures follow what people are saying and appear well connected to the verbal message.|
|Personal Appearance||Your appearance should be appropriate for your audience and for the occasion on which you are speaking. Clothing, accessories, and grooming.|
|Rate||The speed at which you speak at.|
|Volume||Loudness or softness of the voice, appropriate volume for your speech depend on several factors such as the size of your audience, the size of the room in which you're speaking and whether you are using a microphone.|
|Pitch|| A measure of how high or how low the voice is. Every voice has range of pitches that it typically produces. |
⁃ Ex: When speakers are nervous they speak at a higher pitch where a more confident speaker talks in a deeper pitch which allows them to get their message across better.
|Articulation||The extent to which the speaker pronounces words clearly. A person who mumbles has poor articulation. A speaker with good articulation enunciates each word clearly and correctly.|
|Fluency||Clarity and smoothness of the speaker's delivery.|
|Choosing and using presentation aids:|| ⁃ Remember the goal|
⁃ Consider the Context
⁃ Strive for simplicity
⁃ Be ethical
⁃ Have a back up plan
|Informative Speeches can define:||⁃ Identify the denotative meaning, explain the connotative meaning, provide etymology of a term (origin)|
|Vested interest||an inherent motivation to pay attention|
|Informative speeches can explain:|| ⁃ Explaining: revealing why something occurred or how something works|
⁃ Objective: Based on facts rather than opinions.
⁃ Subjective: Biased toward a specific conclusion
|⁃ Informative speeches can demonstrate||⁃ Demonstrate: Showing how to do something|
|relate yourself to the topic and the topic to your audience!|| ⁃ First it establishes for your audience that you have the credibility to speak with authority about your topic. (Training, personal experience, or a vested interest in what you are discussing)|
⁃ Listeners will care more about the topic if they believe it matters personally to you than if they do not.
|Create information hunger and why it's important in a speech!||⁃ Vested interest: an inherent motivation to pay attention |
⁃ Information hunger: the desire to learn
⁃ Spark their curiosity and give them the reason to want the information that you have. "Whats in it for them"
⁃ Generate information hunger by connecting your topic to one of the 5 needs: physical, relational, identity, spiritual, and instrumental.
⁃ By doing so you make the information relevant to them and motivate the audience to pay attention to your words and message.
|Make it easy to listen !||⁃ Keep it short: You will have a specific time slot for your informative speech, include only as much information as you can reasonably cover.|
⁃ Keep it simple: Use plain simple language that everyone will understand what you are saying. They must understand what you are saying in order to learn from it.
⁃ Start with What's familiar: Start with a familiar concept then relate that to the new information that is familiar to them.
⁃ Repeat key points: Repition of important points will help your listeners remember what you say.
⁃ Make it fun: Humor can enhance your presentation and increase your listeners' retention, keeps them focused.
|Media||a collection of various channels of communication|
|content dimension|| communicator is trying to communicate|
"I am kind of unhappy today"
content dimension= you are sad
|symbol||a word, or a presentation of an idea|
|communication passes through perceptual filters|| we filter incoming communication through out own perceptions, experiences, biases and beliefs.|
-not always exactly what the other person says/hears
(i.e. political views)
|channel-lean contexts|| use fewer channels, limited.|
-pay more attention to the actual words.
|channel-rich contexts|| environments that incorporate multiple communication channels at once.|
(facial expression, gestures, and tone of voice, touch, personal appearance)
|transaction||both people in a conversation are simultaneously sources and recievers.|
|interation model|| -takes off where the action model leaves off.|
-two way process
-not just a passive reciever, instead you become an active shaper of your conversation
|Action model|| one way communication process|
------------> (texting, email)
|instrumental needs|| practical everyday needs |
-short term objects (ordering a drink)
-long term goals (getting a job, earning a promotion)
|spiritual needs||communication provides a mean of expressing and sharing spiritual ideas and practices with others.|
|identity needs|| important role in shaping the way we see ourselves.|
-the way we communicate with other and the way they communicate with us shapes the way we see ourselves.
-to know who we are, we compare ourselves to others.
pretty=prettier than others
|metacommunication|| communication about communication|
"not what you said, but how you said it."
|relational dimension|| signals about the relationship in which a message is being communicated.|
ex: by telling your friend that you are sad you are sending the message that you are comfortable enough to share your feelings with your friend.
"i want you to help me feel better."
|explicit rules|| clearly articulated|
-"dont talk with your mouth full."
-"please wait to be seated."
-directly expressing expectations.
|implicit rules|| (not implies)|
-not clearly articulated but still understood.
|intrapersonal communication|| includes the smallest audience in communication.|
-its communication with yourself.
|interpersonal communication|| occurs between 2 people in the context of their on going relationship|
(face-to-face, talking on the phone)
|small group communication||communication between a minimum of 3 people and maximum of 20 people.|
|public communication||speaking or writing to an audience that is larger than a small group.|
|mass communication|| communicatino deliveredto a large audience.|
(through news paper, broadcast television)
|myths of communication|| -everyone is a communication expert|
-communication can break down
-communication will solve any problem
-communication is inherently good
-more communication is always better
|communication competence||communication that is effective and appropriate for a given situation|
|self-monitoring||good communicators that are aware of their own behavior and its effects on others.|
|low-self monitor||are not as aware|
|competent communicators are adaptable||are able to adapt their behavior to different contexts.|
|competent communicators are empathic||ability to be "other oriented" or be able to understand others emotions and feelings, "put yourself in their shoes."|
|communication||process by which we use signs, symbols, and behaviors to exchange information and create meaning.|
|relational needs||essential needs we look for in our relationships with other people (companionship, affection, relaxation, escape)|
|physical needs|| good communication keeps us healthy.|
-when we are denied the oppurtunity to interact our mental and physical health can suffer.
|Demographic characteristics||includes your age and facility with computer mediated communication, sex, sexual orientation, cultures, socioeconomics, physical, mental characteristics, and political orientation|
|Electronic media||Search engines, Computer-mediated messaging (email, instant messaging, Texting, spam)|
|Social media||blogs, social network sites, media sites, micro blogging (people generated sites)|
|Selective exposure||a process whereby we seek media messages that match our values rather than those that do not. (watching MSNBC rather than fox because you are liberal)|
|Uses and gratifications|| leads researchers to explore other needs media messages fulfill for people. |
⁃ *important to media producers who are anxious to know what movies, books and shows most appeal to audiences.
|Agenda-setting theory|| media tells people what to think about by determining what they watch, read and hear. |
⁃ *by giving attention to a topic, the media puts that topic on the public's agenda making it relevant to public discussion.
|Cultivation theory|| television encourages or cultivates a distorted view of the world among heavy viewers. |
⁃ Suggests a distinction between the "real world" and the "television world"
⁃ T.v. viewing can blur the distinction in people's minds.
|Advertising:|| communication intended to promote the purchase of a product or service|
⁃ Influences the economy by affecting consumer behavior
⁃ Product placement: involves featuring particular brands in the storyline of a movie, television show, book, or even a comic strip.
|Desensitization theory:|| people's acceptance of real-life violence grows as they see more violence reflected in the media |
⁃ High violence watchers may be more likely than others to justify violent behavior.
|Representation||Describing something in terms of its physical or psychological attributes.|
|Narration||Describing a series of events in a sequence|