Chapter 9

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18 terms · Biotechnology and Recombinant DNA

genetic engineering

artificial gene manipulation

biotechnology

the use of microbiology and biochemistry to make useful products

restriction enzymes

cut DNA at certain sequences

DNA cloning

putting a piece of DNA into a cell and allowing it to replicate

vector

a carrier, usually plasmids or viruses

dissimilation plasmids

have genes for unusual metabolic enzymes

bacteriocinogenic plasmids

have genes for bacteriocins, which are bacterial toxins

resistance plasmids

have genes that help against harmful sustances

conjugative plasmids

have genes that cause transfer b/w 2 microbes

genetically engineered products

horomes, enzymes, vaccines, sturdier plants, snomax

reverse transcriptase

an enzyme that makes a piece of DNA from mRNA

cDNA

the new DNA that has been made from mRNA

probes

single-stranded pieces of DNA or RNA that have been labelled with a dye or radioactive material

denatured DNA

a DNA molecule that has been split apart

hybridized DNA

pieces of DNA from different sources that have joined together

gel electrophoresis

a substance is soaked into a gel and then electrical current is applied to the gel to cause the substance to move through it

Southern Blot

the gel is placed onto filter paper so the material soaks into it

PCR

the process of rapidly copying DNA by heating it until it separates, then using an enzyme from a thermophile to copy the strands over and over

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