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know about Metabolism

nucleus

Most of the mass of an atom is contained in its

protons

Atomic mass is determined by the number of neutrons plus

element

The number of protons in an atom determines the

neutral

Atoms are electrically ________ because they have the same number of protons and electrons.

nitrogen

The principal elements found in living things are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and

molecule

the smallest complete unit of a compound or diatomic gas

compound

a new substance formed by the combination of two or more different atoms

energy

area that electrons are found around an atomic nucleus

17

The atomic mass of an element whose atoms consist of eight protons, nine neutrons, and eight electrons is:

118

how many elements have been identified?

gains

When an atom ____ an electron, it becomes charged.

ion

An atom that has gained or lost electrons is called an ___

salt

____ is produced when an acid reacts with a base.

electrons

The reactivity of an atom is due to the number and arrangement of ______ in the outer energy level.

covalent

The bond that includes sharing electrons with another atom is called

positively

When an atom loses an electron, it becomes _______ charged

ionic

Atoms which transfer electrons can combine to form a(n) _______ bond.

Chemical reactions

_________ _______ are the result of an atom attempting to rearrange its configuration to result in a stable octet.

organic

Water can dissolve only _______ compounds.

acid

are compounds that produce H+ ions in solution. A substance which yields an anion plus a proton is a(n)

electrons

When atoms combine, interactions occur between their

hydrogen

The bonds that link many water molecules together to form a water drop are _______. The weak type of bonding which attracts molecules to molecules is ______.

covalent

When electrons are shared, the type of bonding is called

activation energy

The heat needed for chemical reaction to take place is called

catalyst

A substance that helps a reaction to take place, but does not participate in the reaction is called a

decomposition

H2CO3 ------> H2O + CO2

synthesis

NH3 + H2O -------->NH4OH occurs when a molecule is formed from the bonding of atoms, ions or simpler molecules.

exchange

H2SO4 + 2KOH --------->K2SO4 + 2H2O reaction occurs when the bonds of the reacting compounds are broken and new combinations are formed. Acid + base yields salt + water

buffers

Substances which maintain a body's pH within narrow limits are called

energy output

What is expected when reactants break bonds?

hydrolysis

decomposition using water. Carbohydrates are converted to energy by the process of ________.

complex

Polysaccharides are ______ sugars

phospholipids

Of the three liquid types, _________ are more similar to fats

DNA

The ___ bases are attached to the phosphate part of the structure.

nucleic acids

carry the genetic codes which determine the structure and function of an organic compound

carbohydrates

Lipids are chemically most similar to

5,000

In a protein molecule, the number of amino acid molecules may be as many as:`

protein

Enzyme, antibody, hormone, and muscle are roles played by

nucleic acids

The largest molecules in organisms are

4

How many electrons does carbon lack in its outer shell?

ionic

When compounds which are formed from _____ bonds decompose, the products are usually ions of the original elements

polymers

Large organic molecules which are synthesized from multiple identical subunits are carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, and _______

lipids

Steroids are

proteins

Amino acids are the building blocks of

covalent

Carbon forms ______ bonds.

nucleic acids

The largest organic molecules are _______ ____

enzymes

Protein catalysts which cause reactions to occur at temperatures and pH values which are common to living cells are called _______. Are produced within an active cell. An organism can NOT live without ______. A catalyst for chemical reactions in biological systems is called an _______.

cofactors

Nonprotein substances (such as vitamins and some metal ions) which need to be present for enzymes to function are called

ionic

transfer

covalent

sharing

carbohydrate

A sugar or polymer of sugar.

lipid

A group of organic compounds including fats, steroids, and phospholipids.

nucleic acid

A sequence of sugars, phosphates and nitrogenous organic bases: DNA and RNA.

polymer

A chemical compound in which each molecule is made up of two or more simpler molecules strung together.

polymerization

A reaction in which two or more molecules unite, forming a more complex molecule.

protein

A large complex organic molecule consisting of a large number of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.

RNA

an acid located in the cell nucleus

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