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Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.

retention; acquisition

A modern information-processing model that views memories as emerging from particular activation patterns within neural networks is known as:

connectionism.

The process of getting information out of memory storage is called:

retrieval.

An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for:

rehearsal.

The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates:

effortful processing.

In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as:

rehearsal.

The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Her effective recall of these particular names best illustrates the benefits of:

rehearsal.

Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of:

acoustic encoding.

The fact that our preconceived ideas contribute to our ability to process new information best illustrates the importance of:

semantic encoding

When Gordon Bower presented words grouped by category or in random order, recall was:

better for the categorized words.

Sabrina went to the store for furniture polish, carrots, pencils, ham, sponges, celery, notebook paper, and salami. She remembered to buy all these items by reminding herself that she needed food products that included meats and vegetables and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of:

hierarchical organization.

Short-term recall is slightly better:

for random digits than for random letters.

Our short-term memory span is approximately ________ items.

7

Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of his grandfather's unexpected death. This best illustrates:

flashbulb memory.

Stress hormones facilitate the formation of new memories by:

increasing the availability of glucose.

After suffering damage to the hippocampus, a person would probably:

lose the ability to store new facts.

Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that one can do so best illustrates ________ memory.

implicit

Studies of amnesia victims suggest that:

there are two distinct types of memory.

The ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between:

explicit memory and implicit memory.

A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.

implicit

Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.

short-term

The three-stage processing model of memory was proposed by:

Atkinson and Shiffrin.

The conscious repetition of information in order to maintain it in memory is called:

rehearsal.

Information is maintained in short-term memory only briefly unless it is:

rehearsed.

Students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester in order to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of:

the spacing effect.

The spacing effect means that:

distributed study yields better retention than cramming.

In order to remember the information presented in her psychology textbook, Susan often relates it to her own life experiences. Susan's strategy is an effective memory aid because it facilitates:

semantic encoding.

Which type of word processing—visual, acoustic, or semantic—results in the greatest retention?

semantic

Chunking refers to:

the organization of information into meaningful units.

Lashley's studies, in which rats learned a maze and then had various parts of their brains surgically removed, showed that the memory:

remained no matter which area of the brain was tampered with.

Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as:

12 seconds.

The temporary release of stress hormones into the bloodstream facilitates:

long-term potentiation.

An understanding of the distinction between implicit and explicit memories is most helpful for explaining:

infantile amnesia.

After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from:

amnesia.

Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory.

implicit; explicit

A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.

implicit

Damage to the ________ is most likely to interfere with explicit memories of newly learned verbal information. Damage to the ________ is most likely to interfere with explicit memories of newly learned visual designs.

left hippocampus; right hippocampus

Ebbinghaus' use of nonsense syllables to study memory led to the discovery that:

the amount remembered depends on the time spent learning.

The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates:

effortful processing.

When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of:

semantic encoding.

One way to increase the amount of information in memory is to group it into larger, familiar units. This process is referred to as:

chunking.

Sherry easily remembers the telephone reservation number for Holiday Inns by using the mnemonic 1-800-HOLIDAY. She is using a memory aid known as:

chunking.

Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates ________ memory.

flashbulb

The temporary release of stress hormones into the bloodstream facilitates:

long-term potentiation.

Memory for skills is called:

implicit memory.

The hippocampus plays a critical role in ________ memory.

explicit

Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory.

implicit; explicit

Elderly Mr. Flanagan, a retired electrician, can easily remember how to wire a light switch, but he cannot remember the name of the president of the United States. Evidently, Mr. Flanagan's ________ memory is better than his ________ memory.

implicit; explicit

Mr. Nydam suffers amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between:

explicit memory and implicit memory.

The three steps in memory information processing are:

encoding, storage, retrieval.

One day after Usha hears her mother's list of 12 grocery items, Usha is most likely to remember the items ________ of the list.

at the beginning

Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes every day for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known as:

the spacing effect.

Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of:

semantic encoding.

Semantic encoding refers to the processing of:

meanings.

Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the:

amygdala.

Stress hormones facilitate the formation of new memories by:

increasing the availability of glucose.

Amnesia patients typically experience disruption of:

explicit memories.

Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can't recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the:

hippocampus.

Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eye-blink response when the ______ is temporarily deactivated during the process of training.

cerebellum

Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is to:

encoding.

According to the serial position effect, when recalling a list of words you should have the greatest difficulty with those:

in the middle of the list.

Chess masters can recall the exact positions of most pieces after a brief glance at the game board. This ability is best explained in terms of:

chunking.

The magical number seven, plus or minus two" refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.

short-term

When you have to make a long-distance call, dialing an unfamiliar area code plus a seven-digit number, you are likely to have trouble retaining the just-looked-up number. This best illustrates the limited capacity of ________ memory.

short-term

Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?

a conditioned fear of guns

Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________.

explicit memory; implicit memory

Memory for skills is called:

implicit memory.

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