mesopotamia and Fertile Crescent

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Fertile Crescent

A large area of rich, or fertile farmland in Southwest Asia where the first civilizations began.

Silt

A mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks that makes land ideal to farming.

Irrigation

A way of supplying water to an area of land.

Canals

Human made water ways.

Surplus

More than they needed.

Division of Labor

An arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job

Rural

A countryside area

Urban

Activity area

City-State

A political unit consisting of a city and its surrounding countryside.

Gilgamesh

A king of Uruk who became a lengendary figure in sumerian literature.

Sargon

A Sumerian King who established the worlds first empire.

Empire

A land with different territories and people under a single rule.

Polytheism

The worship of many gods

Priests

People who performed religious ceremonies

Social Hierarchy

The division of society by rank or class

Cuneiform

The worlds first system of writing

Pictographs

A picture symbol

Scribe

A writer

Epics

Long poems that tell stories of heroes

Architecture

The scient of building

Ziggurat

A pyramid shaped temple tower in sumer

Monarch

A ruler of a kingdom or empire

Hammurabi's Code

A set of 282 laws that dealt with almos every part of daily life in Babylon

Chariot

A wheeled horse drawn cart used in battle

Nebuchadnezzar

A famous Chaldean King who rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city

Alphabet

A set of letters that can be combined to form words.

What made civilization possible in Mesopotamia?

What made civilization possible in Mesopotamia was that the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers flooded and left a fertile layer of soil for crops which provided food for early settlements.

Why did the Mesopotamians create irrigation systems?

The Mesopotamians created irrigation to ensure a stable supply of water for crops and livestock and to protect against damage from too much or to little water.

In what ways did a division of labor contribute to the growth of Mesopotamian civilization?

Ways in which a division of labor contributed to the growth of Mesopotamian civilization were people developed expertise outside of farming, large scale projects were completed and laws and government needed to carry out such projects were developed.

How did Sargon build an empire?

Sargon built an empire by using a permanent army

How did trade affect Sumerian society?

Trade affected Sumerian society by exchanging grain for gold, silver, lumber and precious stones which led to greater wealth.

Why do you think priests were so influential in ancient Sumerian society?

Priests were so influential in ancient Sumerian Society because people relied on them to gain the Gods favor.

How was cuneiform first used in Sumer?

Cuneiform was first used in Sumer for keeping business records.

What areas of life were improved by Sumerian inventions?

Several areas of life were improved by Sumerian inventions. The plow made it easier to farm. The wheel made transportation easier. Medicine was improved by producing healing drugs. The Potters wheel helped improve art. Match was improved with the development of the clock the math system and the division of the circle. Science was improved with the recording of names with the thousands.

List in order the peoples who ruled Mesopotamia

In order, the people who ruled Mesopotamia were:
The Babylonians, Hittites, Kassites, Assyrians, and Chaldeans

What two advantage did Hittite soldiers have over their opponents?

The Hittites had metal weapons and chariots

Which empire do you feel contributed to more to modern-day society, the Hittites, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans, or the Phoenicians? Why?

The Phoenicians because they made the first alphabet.

How did the Phoenicians grow wealthy?

By becoming expert sailors with a fast fleet of trading ships and had valuable items to trade.

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