Ch.8 Self Concept, Self Esteem, and Exercise

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Self Concept

" Who I am"- the way in which we see of define ourselves. (son, daughter, salesperson etc.)

self esteem

" how i FEEl about who I am"- the extent to which one feels positive or negative about their own self concept.

perceived competence

ask oneself questions, "Do i consider myself to be an athletic individual?'. or

self confidence

" while i feel capable of doing this activity, am i as capable doing another activity.?

Academic Self Concept

Encompasses the primary learning domains of english, math, hirtory, and science.

Non Academic self concept

is divided into social( enhanced by positive interaction with others), emotional ( cognitive or emotional states, positive of negative thoughts and feelings, and physical self concept.( individuals judegements of both general physical abilities and physical appearance.)

physical concept

is formulated by the individuals judgements of both general and physical abilities and physical appearence.

Social Self- Concept

Is enhanced by positive interactions with peers and significant others.

the physical self-perception profile

Valid and reliable across a variety of measures. Substantial amount of reading with complex response format, making it less user-friendly. Shorter (30 items) based on sharndon model

physical self-description questionanaire

A comprehensive assessment of physical self-concept. Global measures of both physical self-concept and self-esteem. Single-statement items.Longer (70 items)

Body Image

" What one looks like'( ones pleasing/satisfying or displeasing/disatisfying feelings.)

body esteem

is the emotional consequence of body image, " how i feel about what I look like."

Self schemata

An individuals domain specific identities( exercise identities.)

Exerciser Schematics

descrived themselves as exercisers who that this self-identification as being critical to their image.

nonexerciser schematics

descrive themselves as nonexercisers and who also consider the 9deficient) exercise descriptor to be a significant influence on their self image.

aschematics

nonexercisers and dont consider this perception to be important to their self image.

significance of self-esteem

it is an important psychological need, tied to happiness? It is the greatest potential impact of physical activity on ones self esteem.

Self- Conecpt Model

Shavelson, Hubner, and stanton 1976... general model.

Model of exercise and self esteem

with hierachically organized constructs (sonostroem and morgan.1989.) SPECIFIC

SELF CONCEPT MODEL def.

One's general (overall) self-concept is an aggregate construct determined by judgments of self-concept in a number of domainsgeneral self-concept consists of two primary categories:Academic self-concept (primary learning domains)Nonacademic self-concept. The base level of the hierarchy is defined by one's behavior in specific situationsJudgments of physical ability are based on our perceptions of successful and unsuccessful performance in activities engaged in over a period of time. Critique:Too simplistic? Should we include "weights" for each activity?

The Exercise and Self-Esteem Model

Sonostroem & miorgan- Hierarchically organized constructs that lead to predictions of global self esteem. Axes: Horixontal- Time, and Vertical- Specific self perceptions at the base and general self perceptions at the top. The process of altering self-esteem is initiated with physical measures located at the base of the model

physical acceptance

The extent to which an individual accepts who he/she is physically.

subjective perception of success

although objective indicators improved firness may not be present, self concepts/self esteems might improve if one feelts the physicak COMPETENCE has improved. ( you dont have to run fasted , just boost your confidence on HOW YOU FEEL> about your performance.)

Measurement

This is the most common self concept//esteem tools in exercise phych literature failed to address elements of physical self concept. The limitations were remedied by introductions of 2 physical self concepts/esteeem inventories in 1980's and 90's/ (physical self Perception profile, and physical self description questionnaire..)

Selective Research

3/4ths of research studies support a positive associaion between exercise and self esteem, but a number of investigations have failed to find this relationshipNo studies have found a negative effect of exercise on self-concept/self-esteem. Extensive variation in both measurement and research design methodology. We know little about dose-response (frequency, intensity, time, mode).

MAstery/ Self-Efficacy Theory

Physical self-efficacy exerts an influence on physical self-concept.Physical self-concept influences global self-esteem both independently and via physical acceptance.Based on the degree to which a person feels he or she has mastered necessary skills, he/she will report improvements in physical self-efficacy.

Self Determination

an individuals drive to autonomously and successfully perform behaviors important to him/her. Has the potential to influence self esteem, and the completion of an event/goal may lead to enhanced feelings of self determination because of consideranle internal capabilities (self motivation, discipline, and effort.)

practical recommendations

Steps may be taken to ensure that the activity engaged in will lead to improvements in self/ concept/esteem.- Determine why the individual is interested in exercise, determine what his goals are. Conduct a basline health and fitness assessments, to provide feedback about progress. Ensure that exerciser feels a sense of accomplishment and personal control regarding exercise routine. Focus on the effort and PERSONAL improvement.

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