A society that has no formal political structure and lacks concentration of political power and authority; Stateless societies were a major part of early African history; The need for a more substantial government in stateless societies led to the creation of states in Africa.
A Christian Kingdom that developed in the highlands of Eastern Africa; Was the most powerful, major Christian state in Africa; Was fiercely independent and fought with African Muslims to defend from conversions.
The extensive grassland belt at the southern edge of the Sahara; Was the only place where camel caravans could be used; Camel caravans were the main method of exchange between northern and southern Africa.
The Arab word for North Africa; Became the first Muslim ruled land on the African continent and began the spread of Islam throughout Africa; Was the first area conquered by Arab armies.
The Arab word for the lands west of eastern North Africa; Was the main area where Arab and Berber armies moved into Spain from; Helped spread Islamic conquest and influence across the lands.
A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; Was one of the main reasons for spread of Islam across Africa; Launched a set of holy wars to spread and purify Islam throughout Africa
Another Islamic reformist group along with the Almoravids; Was one of the main reasons for spread of Islam across Africa; Set up holy wars to purify Islam in African societies.
Kingdoms that developed during the height of Ghana's power in northern Africa; Took the place of Ghana and were main centers of African politics, trade, and culture; Often were led by a patriarch or council of elders.
A Sudanic state created by Sundiata located between the Senegal and Niger rivers; Was a Islamic kingdom that was a very important center for secure trade; Strictly emphasized security in trade and punishments for injustice.
Malinke merchants; Formed small partnerships to carry out trade throughout much of the Malinke Empire; Eventually spread beyond the borders and throughout much of west Africa
A Malinke emperor who was also known as the "Lion Prince"; Founded the empire of Mali by uniting warring clans into one state; Created a unified state and divided clans into groups with different duties.
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings; Recorded and maintained the history of African kingdoms and their leaders;Wrote histories about kings like Sundiata and helped spread historical African information.
Arab traveler who reported the native peoples of Africa as being the most intolerant to injustice; Made many reports on the different societies of Africa and helped spread knowledge of them; emphasized on their security of travel granted by the emperors.
"Port" city that flourished by the flood plain on the great bend in the Niger River; Was a major port of trade that specialized in the book trade; Its Sankore mosque contained a library and an associated university by the 14th century thus becoming one of Africa's intellectual centers.
Muhammad the Great & askia
Muslim ruler who took the military title of askia/ An Islamic military title; Was the successor of Sunni Ali; Extended the boundaries of the empire, causing Songhay to dominate central Sudan by the mid 16th century.
Kingdom forged by Sunni Ali that emerged from Mali as independent in the 7th century; dominated the middle areas of the Niger valley and was a large Islamic kingdom;Rulers were often Muslim while the majority of people were pagan;
States of the peoples of northern Nigeria; Combined Muslim and pagan religions to form new cultures; based on the cities of Kano and Katsinan, and had urbanized royal court ruled over animistic villages.
Islamic titles that were adopted by ruling families;Greatly reinforced the power of rulers with Islam and was a main example of Islamic influence; Helped to increase the power of rulers as political and religious leaders.
Strict Islamic law; Became blended with traditional African rules to form the basis of the Islamic African culture; Islamic leaders in Africa often tried to incorporate it into governments in order to adjust the matrilineal lineage to patrilineal.
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
A 1st century Greek account of the Indian Ocean; Gave important information about the port cities on the east coast of Africa; mentioned ports in east Africa, but vaguely described the demographies of these regions.
Arabic term for African coast; Was a very important exchange and trade point between Africa and other continents; Brought large amounts of economic and cultural interactions between Africa and the rest of the world.
demography & demographic transition
The study of populations and the changes and trends in the levels of population; Is a very important subject when studying the history of any civilization; Helps to explain the rise and fall of the populations is a society that could lead to many major events.
A village located in the forests of Central Nigeria; Had a very influential culture featuring highly developed art style; Cultural ideas spread and influenced many surrounding societies.
City states that developed in northern Nigeria around 1200 C.E.; Became very powerful states that controlled the area around Nigeria; Were highly urbanized states that were ruled by strong regional kings with divine authority.
A large city state that was formed sometime in the 14th century; Was a powerful state which came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485; Brought some European influence into Africa through art.
Kongo & Kingdom of Kongo
A kingdom that formed on the lower Congo river in the 13th century; Was a major stated with a firm agricultural base that was led by a kingship and chieftains; Was a confederation of small stated under the control of a king.
A large Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between Zimbabwe and Limpopo Rivers;Was the center of the kingdom of the area and developed great religious importance; Became associated with and eagle as a symbol of the bird of God.
A title for a king of Great Zimbabwe; Was the reason for a short period of rapid expansion of the kingdom; Helped gain control of a major system of gold and trade.