military commander or ruler
"Amir of the Amir", Commander of Commanders. title was started under the Abbasids.
founder of the Mu3tazilism. a part of the movement led by the Abbasids to overthrow the Umayyads.
The Ansar, or "helpers", were the group of people that converted to Islam in the city of Medina. They accepted the Muslims and Muhammad from their hijra from Mecca and adopted the teachings of the Prophet.
Meccan aristocracy that did not convert until military defeat and the destruction of idols in the Ka'bah by Muhammad. The Umayyad dynasty came from this group.
Middle Eastern court
raider (warrior of the faith), raided non muslim territories esp.
Anatolia als mjahid
one who engages in jihad
literally means a struggle.
doctrine in Shiite community-persecuted believer can deny beliefs. and they can adopt or appear to adopt the beliefs of the majority to blend in--remain safe.
uncritical, unquestioning acceptance means jurist has no personal judgement?
path or route/method of spiritual growth in sufism
chapter in quran
most common mysticism in Islam
kind of like the non-profit investment of a school.
Another pillar of islam. This pillare deals with the payment of charities. the commonly accept amount is 2.5%. zakat was often given to mosques or madrassas or the poor.
622 muhammad and persecuted followers fled from mecca to medina
forbidden, or against the religion.
the Imam is the leader of the friday prayers in a mosque. They preform other religious functions and at times even political functions as well. There is an important distinction in the way that the Sunni view the Imam--as a leader of prayer, and the Shi'a view--that there are Imam's that have been given the right by God to issue authoritative instruction. In shi'a islam the Imam's right to rule is passed through blood and puts the imam on a higher spiritual plane than other Muslims.
Abbasid missionary work - underground conversion to new leadership. identity of the family/claimant kept secret. taught that the mahdi was coming soon. it played up on discontent and upon Messianic belief and militarianism from Zoroastrians. rallying cry: to restore to the golden Age of Islam when the Prophet was still alive.
Sevener and Twelver Shi'ism
arabic has to do with successor, or deputy. name of Muhammad's successors.
per capital tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim population
tax levied on the non-Muslims by their conquerers.
Arabic root has to do with possession.
these were the Muslim converts that joined Muhammad in the beginning of his ministry in Mecca. They were those that went on the hijra (immigration) from Mecca to Yathrib (which became Medina). In this group were most of the Prophets companions.
these were the conflicts that followed the death of the prophet Muhammad. Ridda essentially means "apostasy". The tribes of Saudi Arabia had made contracts with Muhammad and many felt that when he died their contracts were no longer valid. Several conflicts followed to reunite these groups. These wars helped get the Saudi Arabian region into gear and would eventually lead to their expansion and conquests.
Islamic law. based off of the Hadith, the Sunna and the Qur'an.
ways of the prophet
'canon' of revelation received by Muhammad. divided into Suras. canonized by Uthman.
jurisprudence, one of highest worships to God(scholarship is a form of worship), faqih is one who studies this
arbiters of Shari'a law. basically, Islamic scholars.
Graeco-Arabic Translation Movement
Under Abbasids. Greek transcripts. Sassanids had had knowledge about astronomy, astrology and math. but the Greeks had medicine and philosophy.
relates to the idea of a beyt alhikma - apparently established because of a dream that al-Ma'mum had with Aristotle telling him 'must translate!' not really true though, but had been perhaps a library of records of Sassanian Shahs.
translators were pretty independent, whoever they could get money from, so they were patronized by the high ranking bureaucrats. i.e. al Kindi, Hunayn, ibn Ishaq, Qusta ibn Luqa. very little cooperation between the translators and the sponsors. basically just business transactions.
Inquisition of al-Ma'mun (mihna)
3 points: Qur'an is CREATED, tawheed, and that man is entirely free to act as he like.
survival one part of concept describing sufi spiritual state, to live in god
to die in himself, means passing away or annihilation, second part of sufi spiritual state, both help to experience human pre-existant state of soul as a thought in the mind of god, jouyous experience in god's presence makes living life unenjoyable w/out his presence
these were the communities of religious minorities in Muslim ruled lands. Dhimmis consisted of People of the Book (monotheistic religions which had some written spiritual text - mainly Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians). The dhimmis were allowed certain rights while being denied others - they could not serve in the military but they did not have to pay zakat (tithing). The dhimmis played a variety of roles in the newly conquered lands.
invocation or recitation of the names of God
Collection of the sayings of the Prophet. Treated as a source of interpretation of the Qur'an and law.
The collection of the sayings AND traditions of the Prophet Muhammad
5th pillar of Islam - the trip to be taken by Muslims, at least once in their life, to the Holy City of Mecca. The Hajj occurs in a particular month of the Islamic calendar and involves several rituals which occur over the course of several days.
a certificate from an early Islamic school proving the person qualified for making decisions on a higher law. has to do with permission.
the making of decisions in islamic law (shari'a) by personal effort.
divinely guided imam who god will send towards the end of history. Also the Arabic word for judge
Sultanate between 1250-1517. Beat back the Mongols in the battle of Ayn Jalut and beat back the Crusaders.
the niche or making in a mosque that indicated the qibla
the direction to Mecca
the witness of faith (first pillar of Islam) - "there is no god but God, and Muhammad is his Messenger".