birthplace of democracy
Lost to Greece in the Persian war which started Greece's Golden Age
Classical Period/ Golden Age
5th century. Starts at the Persian war and ends at the Peloponnesain war. Many advances during this time.
Philosopher. History. Greek.
Mathematician. Pythagorus formula. greek.
Wrote the physicians oath. Greek.
A choral song sung or chanted about a god or heroic figure. Hymn. 50 men or 50 boys. beginning of theater.
Added spoken parts during a song to make it more dramatic. begin dialogue. (Like in country.) (Added to Dithyramb.) (also playwright)
First actor. First to create character. Makes Dithyramb more dramatic. 6th century. took dialogue farther.
How Greece's territory was divided. City governs rural areas.
Euripides. Characters: Dionysus, chorus of Asian Bacchae, Teiresias, Camus, Pentheus, Attendant, First/ second messenger, Agave, Coryphaeus
Greek word for actor. (answerer)
Greek Philosopher. Tragic form. Wrote Poetics.
Aristotle's 6 plot elements for tragedy:
Plot, character, thought, language/ diction, Music, Spectacle
By Aristotle. About theater esp. the tragic form.
Opening scene- provides background
entrance of the chorus. Interchange with Episode.
when Plot develops. 2 or more characters interact. Interchange with choral ode.
chorus sings their point: commentary. Interchange with episode.
Final scene and characters leave stage.
Purging of emotions
created by Pericles. 450 bc. help poor with admission costs.
Demi-God of fertility, wine, and agriculture.
Festival celebrating Dionysus. Start theatre. In spring (late march). In Piraeus (near athens) Dithyrambs preformed. Tragedy and comedy added later.
4 plays by one playwright. 1 comedy/ satyr 3 tragedy. All stand on own but have same theme.
Greek Drama. off of greek mythology and history. Chorus of saytrs
Half man half goat
Imitation (our theater)
group sharing. (no fourth wall) everyone together. social efficacious. Purpose. (frat party)
Sign with meaning. Reaction. Cultural.
make as non bias as possible. (who is writing the history)
Economics and class. (who was involved in theater)
Revising history from the way it is told. Look through certain point of view. (eliete point of view)
what is a play vs. popular entertainment. what is performance.
Cause and effect
chooses plays and Coregus. oversee and judge dithyramb. (11 months ahead of time) government elected.
Producer. Provides money for major expenses (rehearsals, costumes, musicians) (Win= great prestige) appointed by archon
historical stories passed down by oral storytelling.
added 2nd actor. chorus to 12 (used extensively). wrote about: wealthy families, lofty themes (high status. First world problems). Praised: lyrical poetry, dramatic structure, intellectual content. 7 plays (agamemnon). (founder of greek drama. master tetralogy.)
added 3rd actor. chorus to 15. Superb plot construction and character exploration. Realistic scene painting. 7 plays (oedipus).
Most modern of greek playwrights. More realism. Sympathetic portrayal of women. mixed tragedy, comedy, melodrama. diminished chorus use and chorus. (the bacchae).
old comedy. made fun of government. Inventive comic scenes. witty dialogue. Pointed Satire. Contemporary (about his time. not timeless). (Lysistrata).
Major part in their drama. gives commentary on action in the episode.
"goat song" Universal. Gods/ myths. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides.
has reversal and recognition
no reversal or recognition.
purging of emotions
Political/ society. Aristophanes. 534-404 bc
Pore particular. in contemporary. ("knows") society and politics.
leads to new comedy. 404- 336
Domestic. plot driven. mostly secular. Meander.
During alexander the greats reign. defeated by romans (336-146) Art, culture, intellect. changes in architecture, acting, writing
Greek. audience/ seating. "Viewing place"
Greek orchestra (structural)
playing area. has thymele in middle.
stage house. (scene building. dressing space. store props. entrance/ exit. mask mechanics)
alter in the middle of the orchestra
type of flat
triangular flat device.
Dues Ex Machina
"machine" crane used for entrance of a god from heaven.
greek. Place where important people sit.
wagon wheeled from behind stage to transport character that dies off stage.
huge. cover entire head. included hair and beards and distinctive features. Identifies character. in tragedies chorus all same masks. comic masks for chorus unusual.
Garment. held on my shoulder. sewn. (like toga-ish)
hellenistic period. thick soled boots.
Artists of Dionysus
like a union for actors. precursor to equality actors. named to remind them of religious background.
earliest professional performers. traveled. entertainment not religion. Juggling, acrobatics, wordless dances about fables, sketches with dialogue. with women. originate in southern italy. own guilds (not recognized by artists of Dionysus)
New Comedy. 4 plays. 5 acts. Aristotle's dramatic structure. role of chorus very minimal (greatly subtracted).
problem to be tested in greek old comedy. usually established in prologue. (ex: lysistrata- no sex until war ends)
a satyr play. Euripides
All male. not always paid. never more than 3 on stage. one actor- multiple roles. vocal ability key.
reed instrument. most used. double flute.
scene with a debate between to opposing forces (each one side of social/ political issue.
scene which chorus speaks directly to audience. pokes fun at spectators (sometimes specific ones), or other subjects.
christianity (early). jewish. islam.
Abydos Passion Play
in Egypt. (2500-500) precursor to Dithyramb. About Osiris.
Symbolic. For a purpose (ethicatious). Slowly develop into patterns. Magical effect.
formal. led by designated authority figure.
Functions of masks
To identify character. (not about actor)
can't be replicated. Fleeting.
public preformers/ storytellers
Origins of theater
Imitation, roleplaying, story telling, Rituals, ceremonies. (start with Abydos ritual into dithyrambs)
intended to achieve results.
behavior from past. replicating. consciously.
Describes dramatic structure. (Aristotle poetics)
What it should be. (Hource)
writing about writing.
With government official in charge of production details.
exaggerated headdress for tragic characters
Mime troupes from southern italy
Roman values and focuses
Duty,Honor, loyalty, discipline, economy, endurance "A system is important and individuals part are part of the whole.". forces on practical, military, strategy, pop entertainment.
democracy. 508-27 be
Fall of rome
Too much to monitor.
one person rules
Civilization nw of rome. Influential on roman theater.
stock characters satirized from roman countryside. own mask and costume. short improvised based on domestic situations or mythological burlesque. motivated by base instinct (lust and greed). Country bumpkins.
Roman festival. Displayed athletic contests pop. entertainment. Tarquin established. held in september. dedicated to jupiter (roman zeus). no errors allowed.
Theater of Pompii
first built (outside of roman law).
roman actors (latin word)
like festival of dionysus
comedy based on greek subjects
comedy based on roman materials
Roman. front curtain on telescope poles. hides actors.
Roman. painted backdrop.
Roman aristotle. wrote art of poetry. moralist.
genres not mixed. plays in 5 acts. only 3 on stage at once. God wrote in only when unavoidable. Chorus advances action is moral with high moral tone and good advice. teach and please. preach decorum. no extremes of emotion or offensive material.
476 ad. western roman empire falls. Punic wars and barbarians. Roman catholic church provided order.
Official language greek. Saves roman and greek manuscripts. falls due to split in Christianity with western and muslim.
Ancient Greece, rome, christianity
where roman and greek stuff saved.
Dark ages. 500-1000. rural.
100-1400. start into renaissance. rebirth into towns. self governed towns- end of feudalism. guilds for professions. spread of knowledge. theology. Monasteries for learning.
Organization of politics. Born into position.
Lords, vassals, serfs.
rich, ruled country in senate
ordinary middle class. people's assembly.
Between rome and Carthage.
down to earth. comedy and popular entertainment. Domestic farce. Take from Greek theater and Etruscans. latin.
first to write in latin in roman.
first playwright born in rome.
New comedy. own version. Eliminated chorus. addition of music to dialogue. emphasis on eavesdropping. setting of action on street.
roman comic writer. farcical situations and mastery of colloquial latin. popular. combined: song, dance, native italian farce, new comedy. trials and tribulation of romance. modern comedic musicals. 20 plays (the merchant)
First african play wright. New comedy. Characterization, subtly of expression. elegant language. prologue for background info or summarize plot. high society. double plots. more literary over exaggerated. stock characters. less music.
first female playwright. nun. convent in germany: Gandersheim. 12th century. Canoness(not confined to abby). read/ wrote in latin. wrote so students would not be corrupted. wrote like Terence with christian stories. 6 plays. recurring dramatic action: conversions of nonbelievers, renunciation of past sin. closet- dramas.
religious drama. usually sung or chanted. relates to bible. in latin. performed in churches. wrote and presented by clergy and choir boys.
musical passages sung or chanted.
whom do you speak
Hildegard Von Bingen
woman. short music plays. nun. latin.
medieval playing space.
setting. all seen at once. out side.
Playing space. semi circle
Roman raised stage in front of scaena.
front facade of sceana. ornate. 3-5 doors.
move to outside. serious christian subject mixed with comedy. in everyday language not latin. 2 kinds: cycle plays, and morality plays
Cycle/ Mystery Plays
Dramatize bible. staged indecently as drama. show dramas presented in sequence. vernacular. dramatized as medical types (make more identifiable). has anachronism. spectacular. comedy added. unfold begging to end.
Feast of Corus Christi
Fest in late spring.
displacement in time.
everyman. sermon in theatrical form. bigger theme. allegorical. persuade to repent. temptation back to virtue.
medieval. 2nd dramatic form. abrupt seeing changes. comedy and serious mixed. not single plot (2 separate but related plots) 2 stories 2 plots 2 sets of characters (repeat to reinforce) whole is greater than parts. Cycle plays.
plays written to be recited in small groups. not preformed.
roman playwright. cynical Seneca, violent. closet tragedy. adapted greek. wrote in latin. not chorus needed. emphasize dramatic violent spectacle on stage. villainous characters, supernatural characters. obsessed by overwhelming emotion.
an indifference to pleasure or pain
Body of christ
oversee all production matters.
rich. money for festivals. if good potential career advancement.
story tellers highly prized
religious and historical festivals
no performances while moving.portable wagons with scenes on them (mansions)
Important in Greek Theater
cultural values, significant issues, festival celebrations
Important in Roman Theater
Important in Medieval Theater
Important in Renaissance Theater
Realism, humanism, secular