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Terminology that may be important

Athens

birthplace of democracy

The Persians

Lost to Greece in the Persian war which started Greece's Golden Age

Classical Period/ Golden Age

5th century. Starts at the Persian war and ends at the Peloponnesain war. Many advances during this time.

Herodutus

Philosopher. History. Greek.

Pythagoras

Mathematician. Pythagorus formula. greek.

Hippocrates

Wrote the physicians oath. Greek.

Dithyramb

A choral song sung or chanted about a god or heroic figure. Hymn. 50 men or 50 boys. beginning of theater.

Arion

Added spoken parts during a song to make it more dramatic. begin dialogue. (Like in country.) (Added to Dithyramb.) (also playwright)

Thespis

First actor. First to create character. Makes Dithyramb more dramatic. 6th century. took dialogue farther.

City-states

How Greece's territory was divided. City governs rural areas.

The Bacchae

Euripides. Characters: Dionysus, chorus of Asian Bacchae, Teiresias, Camus, Pentheus, Attendant, First/ second messenger, Agave, Coryphaeus

Hypocrite

Greek word for actor. (answerer)

Aristotle

Greek Philosopher. Tragic form. Wrote Poetics.

Aristotle's 6 plot elements for tragedy:

Plot, character, thought, language/ diction, Music, Spectacle

Poetics

By Aristotle. About theater esp. the tragic form.

Prologos

Opening scene- provides background

Parodos

entrance of the chorus. Interchange with Episode.

Episode

when Plot develops. 2 or more characters interact. Interchange with choral ode.

Choral ode

chorus sings their point: commentary. Interchange with episode.

Exodos

Final scene and characters leave stage.

Katharsis

Purging of emotions

Hamartia

Fatal Flaw

Huberis

Pride (excessive)

Theoric Fund

created by Pericles. 450 bc. help poor with admission costs.

Dionysus

Demi-God of fertility, wine, and agriculture.

City Dionysus

Festival celebrating Dionysus. Start theatre. In spring (late march). In Piraeus (near athens) Dithyrambs preformed. Tragedy and comedy added later.

Tetralogy

4 plays by one playwright. 1 comedy/ satyr 3 tragedy. All stand on own but have same theme.

Satyr play

Greek Drama. off of greek mythology and history. Chorus of saytrs

Satyr

Half man half goat

Mimesis

Imitation (our theater)

Methexis

group sharing. (no fourth wall) everyone together. social efficacious. Purpose. (frat party)

Semiotics

Sign with meaning. Reaction. Cultural.

Iconography

symbolism. context

Deconstructionists

make as non bias as possible. (who is writing the history)

Marxist

Economics and class. (who was involved in theater)

Revisionist

Revising history from the way it is told. Look through certain point of view. (eliete point of view)

Performance Study

what is a play vs. popular entertainment. what is performance.

Positivist

Cause and effect

Archon responsibilities

chooses plays and Coregus. oversee and judge dithyramb. (11 months ahead of time) government elected.

Choregus responsibilities

Producer. Provides money for major expenses (rehearsals, costumes, musicians) (Win= great prestige) appointed by archon

Myth

historical stories passed down by oral storytelling.

Aeschylus

added 2nd actor. chorus to 12 (used extensively). wrote about: wealthy families, lofty themes (high status. First world problems). Praised: lyrical poetry, dramatic structure, intellectual content. 7 plays (agamemnon). (founder of greek drama. master tetralogy.)

Sophocles

added 3rd actor. chorus to 15. Superb plot construction and character exploration. Realistic scene painting. 7 plays (oedipus).

Euripides

Most modern of greek playwrights. More realism. Sympathetic portrayal of women. mixed tragedy, comedy, melodrama. diminished chorus use and chorus. (the bacchae).

Aristophanes

old comedy. made fun of government. Inventive comic scenes. witty dialogue. Pointed Satire. Contemporary (about his time. not timeless). (Lysistrata).

Greek Chorus

Major part in their drama. gives commentary on action in the episode.

Greek tragedy

"goat song" Universal. Gods/ myths. Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides.

Complex tragedies

has reversal and recognition

Simple tragedy

no reversal or recognition.

Catharsis

purging of emotions

Old comedy

Political/ society. Aristophanes. 534-404 bc

Greek comedy

Pore particular. in contemporary. ("knows") society and politics.

Middle comedy

leads to new comedy. 404- 336

New comedy

Domestic. plot driven. mostly secular. Meander.

Hellenistic

During alexander the greats reign. defeated by romans (336-146) Art, culture, intellect. changes in architecture, acting, writing

Theatron

Greek. audience/ seating. "Viewing place"

Greek orchestra (structural)

playing area. has thymele in middle.

Skene

stage house. (scene building. dressing space. store props. entrance/ exit. mask mechanics)

Thymele

alter in the middle of the orchestra

pinake

type of flat

periaktoi

triangular flat device.

Dues Ex Machina

"machine" crane used for entrance of a god from heaven.

Paraskenia

side wings

Proedria

greek. Place where important people sit.

Ekkyklema

wagon wheeled from behind stage to transport character that dies off stage.

Greek masks

huge. cover entire head. included hair and beards and distinctive features. Identifies character. in tragedies chorus all same masks. comic masks for chorus unusual.

Chiton

Garment. held on my shoulder. sewn. (like toga-ish)

kothornos

hellenistic period. thick soled boots.

Artists of Dionysus

like a union for actors. precursor to equality actors. named to remind them of religious background.

Greek mimes

earliest professional performers. traveled. entertainment not religion. Juggling, acrobatics, wordless dances about fables, sketches with dialogue. with women. originate in southern italy. own guilds (not recognized by artists of Dionysus)

Meander

New Comedy. 4 plays. 5 acts. Aristotle's dramatic structure. role of chorus very minimal (greatly subtracted).

Happy idea

problem to be tested in greek old comedy. usually established in prologue. (ex: lysistrata- no sex until war ends)

Cyclops

a satyr play. Euripides

Greek actors

All male. not always paid. never more than 3 on stage. one actor- multiple roles. vocal ability key.

Chorodidaskalos

choral trainer

Aulos

reed instrument. most used. double flute.

Agon

scene with a debate between to opposing forces (each one side of social/ political issue.

Parabasis

scene which chorus speaks directly to audience. pokes fun at spectators (sometimes specific ones), or other subjects.

Theater prohibition

christianity (early). jewish. islam.

Abydos Passion Play

in Egypt. (2500-500) precursor to Dithyramb. About Osiris.

Rituals

Symbolic. For a purpose (ethicatious). Slowly develop into patterns. Magical effect.

Cerimonies

formal. led by designated authority figure.

Functions of masks

To identify character. (not about actor)

effemeral

can't be replicated. Fleeting.

Rhapsoidoi

public preformers/ storytellers

Origins of theater

Imitation, roleplaying, story telling, Rituals, ceremonies. (start with Abydos ritual into dithyrambs)

Efficaciousness

intended to achieve results.

"Twice-behaved Behavior"

behavior from past. replicating. consciously.

Libretto

opera book

Dicorum:

Proper action

Descriptive Criticism

Describes dramatic structure. (Aristotle poetics)

Prescriptive Criticism

What it should be. (Hource)

Metacommentary

writing about writing.

Agonthetes

With government official in charge of production details.

Onkos

exaggerated headdress for tragic characters

Phylakes

Mime troupes from southern italy

Roman values and focuses

Duty,Honor, loyalty, discipline, economy, endurance "A system is important and individuals part are part of the whole.". forces on practical, military, strategy, pop entertainment.

Roman Republic

democracy. 508-27 be

Fall of rome

Too much to monitor.

Roman Empire

one person rules

Eruria

Civilization nw of rome. Influential on roman theater.

Atellan Farce

stock characters satirized from roman countryside. own mask and costume. short improvised based on domestic situations or mythological burlesque. motivated by base instinct (lust and greed). Country bumpkins.

Lundi Romani

Roman festival. Displayed athletic contests pop. entertainment. Tarquin established. held in september. dedicated to jupiter (roman zeus). no errors allowed.

Theater of Pompii

first built (outside of roman law).

Historiones

roman actors (latin word)

Mondey romony

like festival of dionysus

Fabula palliata

comedy based on greek subjects

fabula togata

comedy based on roman materials

Auleum

Roman. front curtain on telescope poles. hides actors.

Siparium

Roman. painted backdrop.

Horace

Roman aristotle. wrote art of poetry. moralist.

Horace's rules

genres not mixed. plays in 5 acts. only 3 on stage at once. God wrote in only when unavoidable. Chorus advances action is moral with high moral tone and good advice. teach and please. preach decorum. no extremes of emotion or offensive material.

Medieval Period

476 ad. western roman empire falls. Punic wars and barbarians. Roman catholic church provided order.

Byzantine Empire

Official language greek. Saves roman and greek manuscripts. falls due to split in Christianity with western and muslim.

Byzantine influences

Ancient Greece, rome, christianity

Constantinople

where roman and greek stuff saved.

Early Medieval

Dark ages. 500-1000. rural.

High Medieval

100-1400. start into renaissance. rebirth into towns. self governed towns- end of feudalism. guilds for professions. spread of knowledge. theology. Monasteries for learning.

Feudalism

Organization of politics. Born into position.
Lords, vassals, serfs.

Patricians

rich, ruled country in senate

Plebeians

ordinary middle class. people's assembly.

Punic Wars

Between rome and Carthage.

Roman Theater

down to earth. comedy and popular entertainment. Domestic farce. Take from Greek theater and Etruscans. latin.

Livius Andronicus

first to write in latin in roman.

Gnaeus Naevius

first playwright born in rome.

Roman comedy

New comedy. own version. Eliminated chorus. addition of music to dialogue. emphasis on eavesdropping. setting of action on street.

Plautus

roman comic writer. farcical situations and mastery of colloquial latin. popular. combined: song, dance, native italian farce, new comedy. trials and tribulation of romance. modern comedic musicals. 20 plays (the merchant)

Terence

First african play wright. New comedy. Characterization, subtly of expression. elegant language. prologue for background info or summarize plot. high society. double plots. more literary over exaggerated. stock characters. less music.

Hrosvitha

first female playwright. nun. convent in germany: Gandersheim. 12th century. Canoness(not confined to abby). read/ wrote in latin. wrote so students would not be corrupted. wrote like Terence with christian stories. 6 plays. recurring dramatic action: conversions of nonbelievers, renunciation of past sin. closet- dramas.

Liturgcal Drama

religious drama. usually sung or chanted. relates to bible. in latin. performed in churches. wrote and presented by clergy and choir boys.

Tropes

musical passages sung or chanted.

Quem Quaeritis

whom do you speak

Hildegard Von Bingen

woman. short music plays. nun. latin.

Platea

medieval playing space.

Mansion

setting. all seen at once. out side.

Cavea

Roman seating

Roman Orchestra

Playing space. semi circle

Scena

Roman Skene

Pulpitum

Roman raised stage in front of scaena.

Scena Frons

front facade of sceana. ornate. 3-5 doors.

Vernacular Drama

move to outside. serious christian subject mixed with comedy. in everyday language not latin. 2 kinds: cycle plays, and morality plays

Cycle/ Mystery Plays

Dramatize bible. staged indecently as drama. show dramas presented in sequence. vernacular. dramatized as medical types (make more identifiable). has anachronism. spectacular. comedy added. unfold begging to end.

Feast of Corus Christi

Fest in late spring.

Anachronism

displacement in time.

Morality Plays

everyman. sermon in theatrical form. bigger theme. allegorical. persuade to repent. temptation back to virtue.

Episodic

medieval. 2nd dramatic form. abrupt seeing changes. comedy and serious mixed. not single plot (2 separate but related plots) 2 stories 2 plots 2 sets of characters (repeat to reinforce) whole is greater than parts. Cycle plays.

Closet Dramas

plays written to be recited in small groups. not preformed.

Seneca

roman playwright. cynical Seneca, violent. closet tragedy. adapted greek. wrote in latin. not chorus needed. emphasize dramatic violent spectacle on stage. villainous characters, supernatural characters. obsessed by overwhelming emotion.

Stoicism

an indifference to pleasure or pain

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