Italian and Northern Renaissance

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Use these flashcards to complete you Cultural Literacy List for the Italian and Northern Renaissance.

Renaissance

The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history

humanism

A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements

sonnet

a short poem with fourteen lines, usually ten-syllable rhyming lines, divided into two, three, or four sections

doge

the elected leader of the republic in the city-states of Venice and Genoa

Niccolò Machiavelli

Italian Renaissance writer, described government in the way it actually worked (ruthless) from Florence. He wrote The Prince that emphasized rules who did whatever it took to maintain control and power (the ends justify the means)

Pope Julius II

Most involved in war and politics; personally led armies against enemies; instituted reconstruction on St. Peter's Basilica.

Michelangelo

This was an artist who led the way for Renaissance masters from his David sculpture and his painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling

Leonardo da Vinci

First to study and record the human body through pictures and paintings. He was a scientist, inventor, and artist. Born in on April 15th, 1452.

Cosimo de'Medici

allied with other powerful families of Florence and became unofficial ruler of the republic

Petrarch

(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed in the study of the first two centuries of the Roman Empire representing the peak in the development of human civilization.

Lorenzo de'Medici (the Magnificant)

he was an Italian statesman and ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance.

Cesare Borgia

A political leader, son of Pope Alexander VI, he had ambitions of uniting all of Italy under his control. His father tried to exploit his office for the benefit of his relatives.

Jacob Fugger

Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe., German business man. Richest banker. One of the first philanthropist. Financed monarchs.

Francois Rabelais

He was a French humanist known for discussing the problems of contemporary religion and secular life.

Michel de Montaigne

Frenchman who after death of a dear friend, thought deeply about life's meaning. Developed the writing style of the essay, brief work that expresses a persons thoughts an opinions.

Jan Van Eyck

Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)

Henry VII

The first Tudor king of England that ruled from 1485 to 1509 and worked to establish a strong monarchical government by ending the private wars (The War of the Roses) of nobles in England.

William Shakespeare

(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.

Thomas More

was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist that wrote Utopia, a fictional world where every citizen had equal rights. He was a strong Catholic and key advisor to King Henry VIII rising to the job of Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain. He will later be beheaded for opposing King Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon.

Desiderius Erasmus

Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe remaining a strong Catholic until his death

Urban society

A system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life.

Secularism

The belief in natural explanations for life and material importance instead of only religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.

Vernacular

the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language) rather than Latin.

Merchant

someone who buys and sells goods for a living

The Prince

Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"

Decameron

literary work by Boccaccio which was composed of 100 vulgar tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravaged Florence in 1348; both a stinging social commentary (sexual/economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior

City-State

A political phenomenon of small independent states in the northern Italian peninsula between the 10th and 15th centuries with the city having political and economic control over the surrounding countryside.

Republic

A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting like Venice and Genoa.

Oligarchy

A system of government in which a small group holds power. The small group is usually privileged in wealth and high position in society. Florence had this type of government.

New Monarch

Rulers of the late 15th and early 16th c. in unified nations like England, France, and Spain who were strong and especially successful in accumulating and centralizing their power. They controlled government by taxation, law courts, police/professional army, and appointed officials to work for them.

Diplomacy

the art and practice of conducting negotiations between nations without arousing hostility that was first used by the city-state of Florence, Italy

Peace of Lodi

Made in 1454, this ended a war among Milan, Florence, and Venice. Cosimo de Medici made a lasting peace by having an alliance between Milan, Naples, and Florence on one side, and Venice and the Papal States on the other. Lasted for 40 years, and represents one of earliest appearances in European history of a diplomatic balance of power for maintaining peace.

Florence

Italy's leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici's

Rome

Capital city of The Papal States which was comprised of territories under direct sovereign rule of the papacy. This was the base of the political and governing power of the Catholic Church as well as its religious power.

Venice

A major maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades. It was a very important center of commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. It is also known for its several important artistic movements, especially the Renaissance period. Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music.

Germany

Area in Central Europe that was divided up among many Princes. Although they were united under the Hapsburg rule of the Holy Roman Empire in name, they failed to be united during the Northern Renaissance.

Low Countries

the lowland region of western Europe on the North Sea: Belgium and Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The Northern Renaissance happened nearly 100 years after the Italian Renaissance from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.

England

The largest country in the kingdom of Great Britain. Their Renaissance happened nearly 100 years after the Italian Renaissance from the late 15th century to the early 17th century.

Christian Humanists

Intellectuals in the late 15th and early 16th centuries who dreamed of idealistic societies based on peace, morality, and Christian virtue and sought to realize the ethical ideals of the classical world and the Scriptures. Their ideals applied the techniques and outlook of renaissance humanism to Christianity and the Bible and strongly influenced Martin Luther and other early Protestant reformer, such as Erasmus.

Social (English) Humanists

Similar to other humanists they expressed deep interest in social issues and emphasized the ideal society in which all citizens were equal such as Thomas More and William Shakespeare.

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