SOC 101 chapter 3 and 11

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Burlington County College Test #2

government

a formal organization that has the authority to make and enforce laws

politics

a social process through which individuals and groups acquire and exercise power and authority

power

the ability of a person or group to affect the behavior of others despite resistance and opposition

authority

the legitimate use of power

traditional authority

power based on customs that justify the position of the ruler

charismatic authority

power based on exception individual abilities and characteristics that inspire devotion, trust, and obedience

rational-legal authority

power based on the belief that laws and appointed or elected political leaders are legitimate

democracy

a political system in which, ideally, citizens have control over the state and its actions

totalitarianism

a political system in which the government controls every aspect of people's lives

authoritarianism

a political system in which the state controls the lives of citizens but generally permits some degree of individual freedom.

monarchy

a political system in which power resides in one person or family and is passed from generation to generation through lines of inheritance

political party

an organization that tries to influence and control government by recruiting, nominating, and electing its members to public office

special-interest group

A voluntary and organized association of people that attempts to influence public policy and policy makers on a particular issue.

lobbyist

a representative of a special-interest group who tries to influence political decisions on the group's behalf

political action committee (PAC)

The political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees in order to contribute funds to favored candidates or political parties.

pluralism

a political system in which power is distributed among a variety of competing groups in a society

power elite

a small group of influential people who make a nation's major political decisions

culture

enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

society

a group of people who have lived and worked together long enough to become and organized population and to think of themselves as a social unit

material culture

the tangible objects that members of a society make, use, and share

nonmaterial culture

the shared set of meanings that people in a society use to interpret and understand the world

symbol

anything that stands for something else and has a particular meaning for people who share the culture

language

a system of shared symbols that enables people to communicate with one another

values

the standards by which members of a particular culture define what is good or bad, moral or immoral, proper or improper, desirable or undesirable, beautiful or ugly

norms

a society's specific rules concerning right and wrong behavior

folkways

norms that members of society (or group with in a society) see as not being critical and that may be broken with out severe punishment

mores

norms that members of society consider very important because they maintain moral and ethical behavior

laws

formal rules about behavior that are defined by political authority that has the power to punish violators

sanctions

rewards for good or appropriate behavior and/or penalties for bad or inappropriate behavior

cultural universals

customs and practices that are common to all societies

ideal culture

the beliefs, values, and norms the people in a society say they hold or follow

real culture

the actual everyday behavior of people in a society

ethnocentrism

the belief that one's culture and way of life is superior to those of other groups

cultural relativism

the belief that no culture is better then another and that a culture should be judged by its own standards

subculture

a group or category of people whose distinctive ways of thinking, feeling, and acting differ somewhat from those of the larger society

counterculture

A group or category of people who deliberately oppose and consciously reject some of the basic beliefs, values, and norms of the dominant culture.

multiculturalism

The coexistence of several cultures in the same geographic area, without any one culture dominating another.

culture shock

A sense of confusion, uncertainty, disorientation, or anxiety that accompanies exposure to an unfamiliar way of life or environment.

popular culture

all the artifacts, values, knowledge, beliefs, and other cultural elements that appeal to the masses

mass media

those means of communication that reach large audiences, especially television, radio, printed publications, and the Internet

cultural imperialism

the cultural values and products of one society that influence or dominate those of another

cultural integration

The consistency of various aspects of society that promotes order and stability.

cultural lag

the gap when nonmaterial culture changes more slowly then material culture

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