Bank of the United States of America
This was founded by Alexander Hamilton. It based its system on the British Bank and became significant for its "national debt" which acted, at least in early years, as a "national adhesive"
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments to the constitution. These were significant for their speed of enforcement and their protection of individuals rights
agreement negotiated by John Jay in 1994, it worked out tensions between britain and the US over the western frontier trade in the caribbean, british seizure of US ships, and debts owed to british merchants. Its significance to history was its creation of tensions between political parties
Convention of 1800
Agreement which freed America from its alliance with France, forgave French $20 million in damages and resulted in Adams' losing a second term as president
father of the constitution; leading federalist; author of the Bill of Rights.4th President and President during the war of 1812.
America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
Judiciary act of 1789
established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system. passed in 1789 as a result of the Marbury vs. Madison case. Established the court system as a coequal branch of government.
a 1794 protest over a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States, while it was very quickly put down by washington (whom called an army to put it down) this event stuck with the new government. For some as a qualification and others as "crushing a fly with a hammer"
the result of differences between Hamilton and Jefferson led to the formation of two political parties called federalist and anti-federalist respectively. It is significant for its impact on political culture in todays society
Alien and Sedition Acts
Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government. Significant because the "land of the free", which had welcomed immigrants to start with, became more unwelcoming.
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism. Because it was the first one, and its warnings have largely been ignored.
First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt. Died in a dual against Aaron Burr in 1804
These documents drafted by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson claimed that the Alien and Sedition Acts violated the U.S. Constitution. These resolutions affirmed the principle of states' rights
one of nations first political parties, led by Thomas Jefferson and stemming from the anti-federalists, emerged around 1792, gradually became today's Democratic party. The Jeffersonian republicans were pro-French, liberal, and mostly made up of the middle class. They favored a weak central government, and strong states's rights.
1797 incident in which French agents demanded a bribe and loan from the U.S. diplomats in exchange for discussing an agreement that French privateers would no longer attack American ships; led to an undeclared war between U.S. and France
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service. Famously done in the chesapeake affair of 1807
Judiciary act of 1801
Passed by the departing Federalist Congress, it created sixteen new federal judgeships ensuring a Federalist hold on the judiciary.
Chesapeake (Leopard) Affair 1807
a British warship Leopard fired on the U.S. warship Chesapeake; 3 Americans were killed and 4 others were taken captive and impressed. Inspired anger in americans, possibly leading to the war of 1812.
A territory in the west central United States purchased from France in 1803 during Jeffersons reign; extended from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains, and the gulf of Mexico to Canada. Purchased for 15 million (about 59 cents an acre) Though Jefferson was hesitant to buy the land, his
members of Congress(famously Henry Clay and Calhoun) eager for war, they were weary of British. forced enlistment of soliders and limits put on American trade
Embargo Act of 1807
Jefferson's response to the cry for war. prohibited american ships from leaving port for any foreign destination, so they completely avoided France/British ships. Resulted in an economic depression, his most unpopular policy of both terms. would be replaced by the Non-intercourse act, equally unsuccessful.
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Marbury V. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress. It established the Supreme court as a coequal branch of government.
He was the fifth President of the United States and author of the Monroe Doctrine. Which proclaimed that the Americas should be closed to future European colonization and free from European interference in sovereign countries' affairs. It further stated the United States' intention to stay neutral in European wars
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchaced Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. Their exploration lasted from 1804-1806. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
He was an American politician, diplomat, and Secretary of the Treasury. He was responsible for balancing the budget, which let America purchase the Louisiana territory from France.
U.S. Minister to France from 1801 to 1804. He negotiated the purchase of the Louisiana Territory.
American soldier and explorer. His expedition often compared to the Lewis and Clark expedition mapped much of the southern portion of the Louisiana Purchase
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by John Adams, he created the precedent of judicial review; ruled on many early decisions that gave the federal government more power, especially the supreme court
United States politician who served as Vice President under Jefferson, he mortally wounded his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a duel and fled south (1756-1836).
Adams midnight Judge who appealed to the US supreme court because Jefferson and Madison would not let him take office even though Adams appointed him. he established the law that the supreme court was a coequal branch of the government.
father of the constitution; leading federalist; author of the Bill of Rights. 4th president. President during the war of 1812.
Shawnee chief who formed a confederacy among Native American nations in the Northwest; joined with British after Battle of Tippecanoe during the war of 1812 but was killed at Battle of Thames in 1813.
beginning leader of the Haitian Revolution and brilliant military and political leader. The success of which shook the institution of slavery all through the new world. lived 1743-1803
Federalist Supreme Court justice impeached by the House in 1804 during the Marbury Vs. Madison case but acquitted by the Senate
personal secretary to Jefferson, was sent to explore the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase. Notoriously bipolar (comited suicide waiting for Clark to come to him so that they could continue their mission)
She was the Native American women that traveled with Louis and Clark on their expedition to the Pacific. She acted as their guide and translator. Wife of a french fur-trapper.