Asian Empire Vocab

Created by karliarmstrong 

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karma

all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life in Hindu belief

dharma

a person's religious and moral duties (hinduism)

Ahimsa

a Hindu belief in nonviolence and reverence for all life

reincarnation

the rebirth of the soul in another bodily form (hinduism)

moksha

the ultimate goal of existence which is to achieve union with brahman (hinduism)

caste

unchangeable social group into which a person is born

Varna System

the caste system of Hinduism; Brahmans (priests and educated), Kshatriyas (warriors and government leaders), Vaisyas (common people; merchants, artisans, farmers), Sudras (unskilled workers and slaves), and the Pariahs (conquered people considered impure, untouchables.)

Nirvana

in buddhist belief, union with the universe and release from the cycle of rebirth

Asoka

the most honored Maurya emperor and Chandragupta's grandson (built hospitals, shrines, edicts.)

Siddhartha Guatama

reformer that spread teachings across Asia that eventually became the core beliefs of Buddhism

Four Noble Truths

the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism

Eightfold Path

the past one must follow to achieve Nirvana (buddhism)

Chandragupta Maurya

a young adventurer that forged the first Indian empire in 321 BC

Muhammad

founder and prophet of Islam

Quran

holy book of Islam

Mecca

a city in western Saudi Arabia, the birthplace of the prophet Muhammad, and the most holy city for Islamic people

Kaaba

the most sacred temple of Islam and is located at Mecca

Calligraphy

the art of producing beautiful handwriting

Hajj

one of the Five Pillars of Faith (islam) and is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims are expected to make at least once in their lifetime

Genghis Khan

chieftan that imposed strict military discipline and demanded absolute loyalty. He also led the Mongols out of Central Asia across southwest Asia.

Kublai Khan

the grandson of Genghis Khan who toppled the last song emperor in 1279 and ruled all of China along with Korea and Tibet

Marco Polo

an important adviser from Venice. He wrote a book about his visit to China which caused European in the far east.

Shinto

a principle religion in Japan that emphasizes the worship of nature

shogun

supreme military commander who held more power than the emperor (Japanese feudal society)

samurai

a member of the warrior class in Japanese feudal society

bushido

the code of conduct for samurai during the feudal period in Japan

Zen

the practice of meditation; a school of Buddhism in Japan

dynastic cycle

the rise and fall of Chinese dynasties according to the Mandate of Heaven

Shi Huangdi

the emperor of the Qin Dynasty who used legalism and built the Great Wall of China

civil service

a system that allowed anyone with the ability to attain public office

civil servant

government official

Confucius

thinker and teacher who developed a philosophy that dealt with worldly ideas and put filial piety above all other duties

Laozi

a thinker that founded Daoism and stressed that people focus on the way of the universe

Filial piety

the respect for parents

Tang Dynasty

lasted from 618 to 907 that helped to restore China's earlier glory

Tang Taizong

a brilliant general who became China's most admired emperor

tributary state

an independent state that has to acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler

land reform

a breakup of large agricultural holdings for redistribution among peasants

Song Dynasty

was a Chinese dynasty from 960 to 1279 that was known for its artistic achievements and also improved trade

pagoda

a multistoried Buddhist temple with eaves that curve up at the corners

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