Chronology of Classical and Medieval Islam

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Muhammad

570-632

Muhammad's first revelation

610

Hijra (migration to Yathrib/Medina)

622/1

Conquest of Mecca

630

Abu Bakr

Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 632-4
-commissioned the first codex of the Qur'an

'Umar

Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 634-44

'Uthman

Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 644-56
-standardized the Qur'an's text. Last universally recognized caliph (except for Shi'i)

'Ali

Rashidun ("Rightly Guided") Caliphate 656-61

Arab conquests in the Middle East and Central Asia

632-656

First Civil War (first "Fitna")

656-61

Kharijites

Emerged in late 650s. Opposed 'Ali and later caliphs

Umayyad Caliphate

(661-750) Move of the capital from Medina to Damascus (Syria). Consolidation and expansion of the Muslim state. Beginnings of conversion to Islam in Middle East.

Umayyad Civil Wars

683-92, 744-50

Dome of the Rock

(692) Constructed in Jerusalem by caliph 'Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705)

'Abbasid revolution

(750) Overthrow of the Umayyads

'Abbasid Caliphate

762- Baghdad=capital
late 8th-10th centuries: Formative developments in Islamic law and theology; beginnings of Sunni and Shi'i Islam

Sunni Islam

Muhammad made no arrangements, so religious authority was left to his close companions. Consult the community at large for interpretation.

Shi'i Islam

Leadership was promised to Muhammad's son-in-law/ cousin 'Ali. That family has special protection and authority as the Imam bloodline.

*Ibn Ishaq

(d.767) Biographer of the Prophet

Ja'far al-Sadiq

(d.765) Sixth Shi'i imam. Major figure in development of Shi'i law

- Abu Hanifa

(d.767) Founder of Hanafi school of law

- Malik

(d.795) Founder of Maliki school of law

- al-Shafi'i

(d.820) founder of Shafi'i school of law

- Ahmad ibn Hanbal

(d.855) founder of Hanbali school of law

Umma

the global muslim community

Hadith

statements or stories attributed to Muhammad or describing his behavior. Normative text

Sunna

record of Muhammad's behavior: in particular, situations as an example for others. More abstract than the hadith's stated reports

Isnad

"the support". Citations for statements by Muhammad.

Sufi tradition

You must have extensive training from a spiritual master to get close to God

the Ka'ba

"The cube" It's the central Holy place of Islam

al-Bukahari

(d.870) compiler of a collection of the Prophet Muhammad's teachings (hadith): most authoritative of Sunni collections

Quraysh

Muhammad's tribe, charged with the upkeep of the Ka'ba

Khadija

Muhammad's first wife

Disappearance of the 12th imam

874

*al-Tabari

(d.923) major Sunni commentator of the Qur'an and historian

Covenant of Medina

forged a political community responsible for protecting Muhammad and his followers

A'isha

Muhammad's wife & one of the most prolific sources about his life.

Fitna

the scarring conflict that divided sects

Tafsir

commentary on the Qur'an

Tabari

(d.929/3) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran. Sunni tradition. Recognized earlier religious traditions

Razi

(d.1209) One of the most influental commentators. From Iran

Qurtubi

(d.1273) One of the most influental commentators. From Cordoba

Ibn Kathir

(d.1373) One of the most influental commentators. From Damascus. Highly opinionated. Refuses to mention earlier religious traditions.

Tawhid

to make ONE: the oneness fo God

shirk

refusal to admit that God is the only

Islam

submission to the ONE God

Rahman

God, the merciful one

aya

a sign or verse in the Qur'an or in nature

Primordial Covenant

before God created anything, he informed every soul about his existence

Taqua

a moral torch

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