SCTD Design History II Exam 1

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Study guide for eras, motifs and designers of the American Federal, Industrial Revolution, French Neoclassical and German Greek Revival periods from Design History II.

The name 'American Federal' (for the era of design between 1776-1820) comes from where, or refers to what?

The establishment of the Federal Government of the United States of America

List three important/common motifs of the American Federal movement:

eagles, swags, egg and dart, palmettes, baskets, urns, stripes, classical figures, George Washington, honeysuckle, paterae.

The "American Orders" column capitals were designed by this innovative/creative American, who also designed the United States Capital:

Benjamin Latrobe

American Federal interiors are heavily influenced by the designs of

Robert Adam

The American Federal represents a turning point in textiles, as the first period in which all of the textiles in a given room:

match

The main type of lighting in American Federal buildings

candlesticks, candleabra

The largest percentage of furniture in the American Federal was in the style of these two designers who published their design books during the Late Georgian:

Hepplewhite and Sheraton

George Hepplewhite

Marquetry means: (in terms of wood inlays/veneers:)

wood veneer inlays in the form of a PICTURE.

Parquetry means: (in terms of wood inlays/veneers:)

wood veneer inalys in abstract GEOMETRIC PATTERNS

Thomas Sheraton

Hitchcock chair or Fancy Chair

Lolling Chair or Martha Washington Chair

Sideboard or Huntsboard (Southern States)

Type of ROOM new to the American Federal period (residential)

Dining room

American Federal period beds were very often of this type, which eventually sagged, causing people to tell one another "Sleep Tight" at bedtime:

Rope beds

The Industrial Revolution begins in which country?

England/Britain

During the Industrial Revolution, FUNCTION becomes an important design consideration, especially in these two rooms of the home:

the Kitchen and the Bathroom

Much of the shopping for homes, furniture and other goods during the Industrial Revolution was done through what means?

catalogs, magazines, periodicals

The Crystal Palace

Any style that copies motifs and designs from past eras is called a:

Revival

How do the color schemes of interiors during the Industrial Revolution change
as a result of better interior lighting?

Colors become paler/lighter.

This type of construction relys on wooden studes that form the total height of the building, with wooden floor joists nailed to the studs:

Balloon frame construction

Mail-order homes in the U.S. are often called by this name, from the most famous catalog from which to order them:

Sears and Roebuck Homes

Argand lamp

List two common types of lighting or fuels/energy of the Industrial Revolution:

kerosene, gas, oil, electricity

Michael Thonet

What is the name used to refer to the form of government directly following the French Revolution and the so-called Reign of Terror AND to the style of furniture associated with that government?

Directoire

Directoire motifs

lozenges, rosettes, spirals, oak leaf, clasped hands

What is the name of the sub-period during which Napoleon first comes to power in France through a coup d'etat ?

Consulate

Consulate motifs

animal legs, swans, caryatids, monopodia, swords, sphinxes, obelisks, helmets, spears, pyramids, etc..

What cultural influences/motifs were incorporated into French Neoclassical designs due to Napoleon's campaigns of 1798?

Egyptian

The greatest influences of style in the French Neoclassical were the excavations in Southern Italy of the towns of:

Pompeii and Herculaneum

French Empire design motifs

Bee, laurel wreath, letter 'N', eagle, swan, rose

monopodia or term figure

The first two designers to be thought of a "interior designers" in the modern sense were:

Charles Percier and Pierre-Francois-Leonard Fontaine

Lit en Bateau

Meridienne or Recamier

Klismos chair

What are fasces?

a motif in the image of a bundle of sticks tied together.

Biedermeier

The dominant style of architecture in Germany and Austria (at the same time as the above style), led by architects such as Karl Friedrich Schinkel.

Greek revival

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