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Abraham Lincoln

President of the United States at the beginning of the Civil War; was inaugurated after seven states had already seced

Fort Sumter

Fort located in Charleston that still flew the American flag when Lincoln took office

General Winfield Scott

commander of the army that expressed the common sentiment that the South should be allowed to part

Richmond

city that replaced Montgomery as the Confederate capital

West Virginia

"mountain white" area that illegal tore itself from Virginia in 1861

Border States

slave states left in the Union at the beginning of the Civil War

Butternut region

area of southern Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where an antislavery war would have been very unpopular

brother's war

term that describes the Civil War because each region sent people to fight for the other side; for example two brothers could be fighting on opposite sides against each other

General Robert E. Lee

important military leader of the Confederate Army who was actually offered the command of the Northern armies by Lincoln but turned him down when his home state of Virginia seceded

Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson

Lee's chief lieutenant who was a gifted tactical theorist and master of speed and deception

"rebel yell"

famous war cry of the Confederate Army

"Billy Yank"

ordinary Union soldier

"Johnny Reb"

typical Confederate soldier

"cotton famine"

shortage of cotton in Britain about 1 1/2 years after the blockades began that cost many Britons their means

Trent affair

The incident in which a Union warship stopped a British steamer and removed two Confederate diplomats

Alabama

A ship built by the British. Not originally built to be a war ship but in 1862 the confederates gave it a crew and weapons. It captured over sixty union vessels before it accepted a challenge from a union cruiser in 1864 off the coast of France.

Maximilian

French viceroy who takes over Mexico during Civil War due to fact that America cannot enforce monroe doctrine

Jefferson Davis

President of the Confederate States of America

Edwin Stanton

Secretary of War under Lincoln who criticized him often

habeas corpus

The legal protection that prohibits the imprisonment of a subject without demonstrated cause.

three-hundred-dollar men

men who paid a three hundred dollar fine or hired someone to fight in their place in the draft

Morrill Tariff Act

This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war. This was just one the new taxes being passed to meet the demanding costs of the war. Although they were still low to today's standers they still raked in millions of dollars.

greenbacks

Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)

Jay Cooke and Company

private banking house through which the national treasury marketed its bonds

"Fifty-Niners"

group of people that rushed to Pennsylvania when petroleum was discovered there in 1859

"government girls"

ladies in Washington who filled jobs left in D.C. when the men went to fight

Elizabeth Blackwell

America's first female physician who helped organize the US Sanitary Commision

Clara Barton

Nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross

Dorothea Dix

superintendent of nurses for union army

Sally Tompkins

ran a Richmond infirmary for wounded Confederate soldiers

Bull Run

battle where Lincoln's armies sought an easy victory at Manassas Junction but were defeated by Stonewall's armies

George B. McClellan

commander of the Army of the Potomac

Pinkerton's Detective Agency

McClellan's source for information on the enemy

"Little Mac"

McClellan's nickname

Seven Day's Battle

series of attacks launched by Lee from June 26th to July 2nd 1862

six

number of years that a Confederacy presidency lasts

Anaconda Policy

battle plan drawn up by Winfield Scott to isolate Southern trade

Emancipation Proclamation

issued by Lincoln that freed the slaves in the Confederacy, but not in the Border states; really didnt do anything because the slaves were out of Lincoln's jurisdiction

balance of power

the hope that in a war both sides will be equal in power and resources

moral suasion

persuading people into action based on morales

martial law

military rule and police power

ultimatum

a final proposition whose refusal will lead to the end of negotiations

loophole

an ambiguity (especially one in the text of a law or contract) that makes it possible to evade a difficulty or obligation

squadron

a unit of military organization

arbitration

(law) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties (often used to settle disputes between labor and management)

appropriation

the act of setting something aside for specific use

arbitrary

based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice

quota

a proportional share or part

bond

a government issued certificate with interest

graft

the acquisition of gain in dishonest or questionable ways

profiteer

one who makes what is considered an unreasonable profit

Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri

border states in alphabetical order

"Old Fuss 'n Feathers"

nickname of Winfield Scott

Scott's Great Snake

another name for the Anaconda Plan

Ulysses S. Grant

skilled general of the Union who eventually became President

Pickett's Charge

July 3rd General Pickett led 15,000 troops across open field at Gettysburg

Vicksburg

Union victory giving them control of the Mississippi River

George Meade

Union leader at Gettysburg

Gettysburg

largest battle in the Western Hemisphere

Nassau

port in the Bahamas that was a popular rendezvous point for blockade running

Merrimack

wooden US warship that was plated with iron railroads and had its name changed to the Virginia

Monitor

tiny Union ironclad

Antietam

battle in Maryland won by the Union won only because Lee's plans were found; Lincoln used the victory to deliver his Emancipation Proclamation

Thirteenth Amendment

outlawed slavery

54th Regiment

Union squadron composed of black men

Fort Pillow

fort where black Union soldiers were massacred after surrendering

General A.E. Burnside

replaced McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac

Port Hudson

the last standing Southern bastion on the Mississippi

Confederacy

side of the civil war supported by the Five Civilized Tribes

naval blockade

the effective Northern effort to strangle the Southern economy and de-throne "King Cotton"

Laird rams

ironclad warships tha were kept out of Confederate hards by Minister Adams's stern protests to the British government

conscription

provision established by Congress in 1863, after volunteers ran out, that provoked violent protest in Northern cities

"bounty jumpers"

slippery northern men who collected fees for enlisting in the Union army and then deserted

nursing

medical occupation that gained new status and employment oppurtunities because of women's Civil War service

National Banking system

financial arrangement set up by the federal government to sell government bonds and stabilize the currency

"shoddy millionaires'

scornful term for Northern manufacturers who made quick fortunes out of selling cheaply made shoes and other inadequate goods to the U.S. Army

U.S. Sanitary Commission

organization developed to provide medical supplies and assistance to Union armies in the field

Napoleon

French dictator who ignored the Monroe Doctrine by intervening in Mexican policies

Charles Francis Adams

American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil War

New York City

site of largest Northern antidraft riot in 1863

flank

side of an army that is vulnerable to attack

garrison

troops stationed at a fortress designed for its defense

Peninsula Campaign

3 sided attack on Richmond planed by McClellan

Andrew Johnson

Lincoln's vice presidential running mate in 1864

Manassas

city where the Battle at Bull Run took place

Unconditional Surrender

nickname of Ulysses S Grant

Copperheads

Northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and sympathized with the South

A Man Without A Country

Edward Everett Hale's story of treason and banishment inspired by the wartime banishing of Copperhead Clement Vallandigham

Atlanta

Georgia city captured and burned by Sherman

Union party

the temporary 1864 colition of Republicans and War Democrats that backed Lincoln's re-election

Ford's Theater

Washington site where Lincoln was assasinted by Booth on April 14, 1865

Appomattox courthouse

Virginia site where Lee surrendered to Grant in April 1865

Lost Cause

romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat

William T Sherman

ruthless Northern general who waged a march through Georgia

Salmon P. Chase

Ambitious secretary of the treasury who wanted to replace Lincoln as president in 1864

The Wilderness

site of one of Grant's bloody battles with the Confederates near Richmond in 1864

John Wilkes Booth

fanatical acotr whose act of violence actually harmed the South; shot Lincoln

Clement Vallandigham

notorious copperhead convicted of treason whoe ran for governor of Ohio while exiled to Canada

Cold Harbor

major battle by Grant fought close to Confederate capital

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