Anatomy and Physiology chapter 11. . . kicking my ass

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What are the four main divisions of the brain?

Brainstem, diencephalon, cerebrum, and cerebellum.

how many pounds does the brain weigh?

3 pounds

the brainstem consists of what three smaller areas?

medulla oblongata, the pons varolii, and the midbrain

The diencephalon consists of what two parts?

thalamus, and hypothalamus.

what protects the brain?

cranial bones and meninges

what does the cerebrospinal fluid circulate through?

subarachnoid space around the brain and spinal cordand ventricles of the brain.

ventricles

cavities within the brain that connect with each other, with the subarachnoid space of the meninges and with the central canal of the spinal cord.

what serves as a shock absorber for the central nervous system and circulates nutrients?

CSF

how many ventricles does the brain contain?

four

what connects the lateral ventricle with the third ventricle?

interventricular foramen or foramen of Monroe

interventricular foramen or foramen of Monroe

a narrow oval opening connecting the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle.

where is the fourth ventricle located?

between the cerebellum and the lower brainstem.

what connects the third and fourth ventricles?

cerebral aqueduct or aqueduct of sylvius

what allows flow of CSF through the SC and Brain?

three openings on the roof of the fourth ventricle which connects the subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal meninges.

what connects the brain to the spinal cord?

brainstem

what contains all the ascending and descending tracts that connect between the spinal cord and various parts of the brain?

medulla oblongata

what make up the white matter of the medulla?

ascending and descending tracts

what is the crossing of motor tracts as they pass through the medulla?

decussation of pyramids.

why do motor areas on one side of the cortex of the cerebrum control skeletal movements on the opposite side of the body?

because motor tracts cross in the medulla at places called decussation of pyramids

what functions in maintaining consciousness and arousal?

reticular formation

reticular formation

an area of dispersed gray matter in the medulla.

what regulates the diameter of blood vessels?

the vasomotor center

what regulates the force of contraction and heartbeat?

the cardiac center

what adjusts your basic rhythm of breathing?

the medullary rhythmicity area

the vasomotor center, cardiac center, and medullary rhythmicity area are three vital reflex centers of what?

the reticular system located in the medulla

what connects the spinal cord with the brain and parts of the brain with each other?

pons varolii

what is another term for midbrain?

mesencephalon

what does the midbrain contain?

the ventral cerebral peduncles and dorsal tectum

what conveys impulses from the cerebral cortex to the pons and spinal cord?

ventral cerebral peduncles

what fis a reflex center that controls the movement of the eyeballs and head in response to visual stimuli?

dorsal tectum

what is superior to the midbrain and between the two cerebral hemispheres?

diencephalon

what surrounds the third ventricle?

diencephalon

what two main areas is the diencephalon divided into?

thalamus and the hypothalamus

what is a part of the diencephalon where optic nerves cross each other?

optic tracts and optic chiasma

what attaches to the pituitary gland?

infundibulum

what are involved in memory and emotional responses to odor?

mamillary bodies

what is a pinecon-shaped endocrine gland that secretes melatonin?

pineal gland

what is the superior part of the diencephalon and principal relay statoion for sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex coming from the spinal cord, brainstem and parts of the cerebrum/

thalamus

what plays a role as an interpretation center for conscious recognition of pain, temperature, and crude pressure and touch?

the thalamus

what is the small area superior and posterior to the thalamus that contains small nuclei concerned with emotional and viceral responses to odor?

epithalamus

what is the inferior part of the diencephalon and controls many bodily functions related to homeostasis?

the hypothalamus

what receives sensory impulses from the internal organs?

hypothalamus

what is the cnter for mind-over-body phenomena?

hypothalamus

what makes up the bulk of the brain?

cerebrum

what is the surface of the cerebrum composed of gray matter referred to as?

the cerebral cortex

what lies beneath the cortex?

cerebral white matter

what separates the cerebrum into right and left halves or cerebral hemispheres?

longitudinal fissure

what are the numerous folds on the surface of each hemisphere?

gyri

what are intervening grooves found with gyri?

sulci

what connects the two cerebral hemispheres?

corpus callosum

what lobe controls voluntary muscular functions, moods, aggression, smell reception, and motivation?

frontal lobe

what separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe?

central sulcus

wht is the control center for evaluating sensory information of touch, pain, balnce, taste , and temperature?

parietal lobe

what separates the temporal love from the frontal and parietal lobes?

lateral fisure

what evaluates hearing input and smell as well as being involved with memory processes?

temporal lobe

what froms the back portion of each hemisphere which receives and interprets visual input?

occipital lobe

what separates the cerebrum into frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes?

lateral sulcus

what lobe is embedded deep in the lateral sulcus?

insula

what is the second larges portion of the brain shaped somewhat like a butterfly?

cerebellum

what functions as a reflex center coordinating complex skeletal muscular movements, maintaining proper body posture, and keeping the body balanced?

cerebellum

what consists of two partially separated hemispheres connected by a centrally constricted structure?

cerebellum

what is the centrally constricted structure which connects the hemispheres of the cerebellum?

vermis

there are how many pairs of cranial nerves?

12

how man pairs originate from the brainstem?

10

what cranial nerve is snesory and conveys impulses related to smell?

olfactory nerve (I)

what cranial nerve is entirely sensory and conveys impulses related to sight?

optic nerve(II)

what cranial nerve controls movements of the eyeball and regulation of the size of the pupil?

oculomotor(III)

what cranial nerve controls eye movements?

Trochlear(IV)

movements and delivers impulses related to touch, pain and temperature in the teeth and facial area?

trigeminal nerve(V)

what cranial nerve controls the movement of the eyeball particulary abduction?

abducens(VI)

what cranial nerve controls taste facial expressions, and secretions of saliva

facial(VII)

what cranial nerve controls balance and hearing?

Vestibulocochlear(VIII)

what cranial nerve controls taste, swallowing, and secretion of saliva?

glossopharyngeal(IX)

what cranial nerve controls sensation of organs supplied and the movement of organs supplied?

vagus(X)

what cranial nerve controls shoulder movement, turning of head, and voice production?

accessory(XI)

what cranial nerve controls tongue movements?

hypoglossal(XII)

what is in tears that lubricate the eye and help combat bacterial infections?

lysozyme, salt, and gamma globulin

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