human growth and development mid term

280 terms by sydneyconnor 

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Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performance between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr. Widaman is conducting a __________ study.

cross cultural

The Apgar scale is a method used to assess the health of newborns. A score of 3 would:

signal an emergency because the baby's survival is in doubt

Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby's:

language development

Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that life-span development cannot be studied without considering biological, socioemotional, and cognitive dimensions. Dr. Tepper-Harmon believes that development is:

multidimensional.

Children in the preoperational stage of development lack the ability to:

perform operations (internalized mental actions)

In which of the following countries is a child most likely to be born to a mother who was assisted by a midwife as opposed to a physician?

holland

Kyesha is 80 years old and is typical of a growing number of older adults. Kyesha MOST LIKELY lives:

alone

The information-processing approach to development is concerned mainly with:

the manipulation, monitoring, and strategizing of information.

The key developmental processes in life-span development include all of the following EXCEPT:

physical/sensory processes.

Which of the following is NOT a gene-linked abnormality mentioned by your textbook?

autistic disorder

The doctor has just told Luka and Steve that their baby scored below 3 on the _______ given within minutes of birth. As a result, the baby will be rushed to intensive care for treatment and observation.

apgar scale

While Sally's mother was pregnant with her, she smoked and drank alcohol, which adversely affected Sally's lung development. After Sally was born, she was placed into an environment with two parents who smoked. As Sally continued to develop, she was diagnosed with asthma, a breathing disorder. The development of this disorder could be explained by the concept of:

the epigenetic view

By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.

16 pounds (1 ounce)

Development is best defined as a pattern of movement or change that:

begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span

The study of human evolution was first explored by:

charles darwin

At what period of prenatal development do neurons begin to develop connections with each other?

around 23 weeks of development near the age of viability

Tzu-Chiang is 55 years old, is currently going back to college, and is enrolled in a college algebra course. Tzu-Chiang is surprised that he is performing well in the course despite not having a formal math class for over 30 years. Researchers would not be surprised by his performance because it has been shown that development is:

plastic

If you studied the attitudes of elderly people today, you might find that most believe it is better for women to stay at home than to work. This is their attitude, probably because these people grew up during the early and middle part of the twentieth century rather than because they are elderly per se. This is an example of a(n) __________ effect.

cohort

Michael and Jessica are having their first child and have told their physician they would like a rooming-in arrangement during their hospital stay. This means that:

Jessica's newborn baby will stay with her in her room

Many older adults become wiser by being able to call on experience, yet their performance on tests of cognitive speed declines. This can be explained by which of the following life-span characteristics?

multidirectionality

Which of the following is one of the contributions of the cognitive theories noted by your author?

They emphasize the individual's active construction of understanding.

By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.

16 ounces (1 pound)

Gustav spends a lot of time thinking about the world as it is now and as it could be if everyone took more personal responsibility for environmental and social conditions. Jean Piaget would say that Gustav is probably in the __________ stage of development.

formal operational

Which of the following is the period of development that occurs 2 to 8 weeks after conception?

embryonic

The idea that no age period dominates development highlights the life-span perspective that development is:

lifelong

In 1981 Steven Jay Gould concluded that in most domains of human functioning, biology allows a broad range of ________ possibilities.

cultural

After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the complete purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concept?

debriefing

According to behaviorists, what is the only correct entity that should be included in scientific research?

observable actions

A(n) __________ is a group of people who are born at a similar time in history and share similar experiences.

cohort

Emanuel is a 25-year-old African American. He is constantly anemic because of an abnormality in his blood. Emanuel has:

sickle cell animea

Which of the following is the quickest way to gain information from a large amount of people?

survey

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a disorder that results in the inability to metabolize ______, which is an amino acid.

phenylalanine

According to evolutionary theory, there is a specific reason that certain animals live in the regions that they do. Polar bears, for instance, are found only in the Arctic regions of the world. An evolutionary theorist would say that the polar bear was best adapted for this type of environment, unlike a grizzly bear, who would freeze to death. In this case, the polar bear is a good example of:

natural selection

The difference between a control group and an experimental group is that the:

control group does not receive the independent variable.

John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:

over the first year

All of the following are alternative possible contributors to problems found in the children of cocaine users, EXCEPT:

mental illiness

A phenotype can consist of ________ as well as ________ characteristics.

physical; psychological

Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:

sleeping

Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:

turner syndrome

Tingfeng We was a victim of child abuse as a young boy, but he did not grow up to become an abuser. Instead, he leads a fulfilling family life. This is an example of which characteristic of development?

change

Dante is 2 years old. His mother took him to the doctor and discovered that he had gained 5 pounds and had grown 2 inches since his last physical exam. This is an example of the role of __________ processes in development.

biological

Sheila is pregnant and has a family history of spina bifida. Which test would be used to determine whether her fetus has this defect?

maternal blood screening

Which of the following is a weakness of the survey method of research?

People are more likely to give socially acceptable or desirable answers.

Rachel has always enjoyed reading. Now that she is a parent, she provides her daughter with many books to read, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy reading. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of correlation between heredity and environment?

passive genotype-environment correlation

Whereas Jean Piaget emphasized the biological processes of cognitive development, Lev Vygotsky emphasized the effects of __________ on development.

social interaction and culture

Maternal stress is negatively correlated with a baby's:

language development

The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:

autonomy versus shame and doubt

________ drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.

psychoactive

Development is best defined as a pattern of movement or change that:

begins at conception and continues throughout the human life span.

Women have a ________ chromosome pairing, and men have a ________ chromosome pairing.

XX;XY

This is a prenatal medical procedure where a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.

amniocentesis

The doctor has just told Luka and Steve that their baby scored below 3 on the _______ given within minutes of birth. As a result, the baby will be rushed to intensive care for treatment and observation.

apgar scale

Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary decides that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of Urie Bronfenbrenner's systems?

microsystem

Kangaroo care with preterm infants has been found to stabilize all of the following, EXCEPT:

sleeping

The developmental period that runs from approximately 40 years of age to about 60 years of age is:

middle adulthood

It is virtually impossible to locate the genetic factors involved in most psychological characteristics because of the concept of:

polygenic inheritance.

According to Urie Bronfenbrenner, this contextual environment consists of the influences exerted by the culture in which an individual lives.

macrosystem

An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps us to explain phenomena and make predictions is known as a(n):

theory

Constance is 75 years old and still very active. She gardens, hikes, plays chess, and is learning to play the piano. She exercises daily to stay fit. She loves reading, listening to music, and playing with her grandchildren. Her hearing and eyesight are not what they used to be, and she is not as steady on her feet as when she was younger. She wears a hearing aid, eyeglasses, and sensible shoes to minimize these losses. Researchers would say that Constance is a good example of how development includes:

growth, maintenance, and regulation of loss

By the end of the fifth month, the fetus weighs approximately ______.

16 punces (1 pound)

Juan-Carlos was born full term but was underweight for his gestational age. He would be considered:

small for date

As a criticism of evolutionary psychology, Albert Bandura proposed a:

bidirectional view.

John Bowlby's work in attachment showed that an infant's attachment to a caregiver has important influence over the life span. Bowlby further suggested that attachment should take place:

over the first year

Dr. Bursten recently conducted research on the drinking habits of teenagers. To get his study subjects to be as open and honest with him as possible, he assured them that according to the ethical guidelines of the APA, all information that is collected is:

confidential

Paul Baltes claimed that nonnormative life events could provide an important context for life-span development. With this concept, the term "nonnormative" refers to an event that:

is not likely to happen to very many people

The second stage of Erik Erikson's psychosocial development theory is:

autonomy vs shame and doubt

Dr. Burial is currently conducting research on sexual orientation. When he gets the participants to sign up, he informs them that they will be looking at a series of pictures to gather information on the appeal of differing clothing combinations. The fact that Dr. Burial is not telling the participants the true purpose of the study indicates that he is using:

deception

Sandra excels in reading and spelling but struggles with mathematics. She is shorter than her peers and was born without ovaries. Sandra most likely has:

turner syndrome

The study of human evolution was first explored by:

charles darwin

Studies show that there is a positive correlation between the number of cute names (e.g., "Snookums" and "Pookie") couples have for each other and their self-reported feelings of love. This research tells me that:

if my sweetheart has a lot of cute names for me, my sweetheart also tells researchers that he/she loves me a lot

With what sex-linked syndrome does a man have an extra X chromosome?

Klinefelter syndrome.

Informed consent in research contains all of the following, EXCEPT:

detailed hypotheses

Natural childbirth consists of all of the following, EXCEPT:

medication

All of the following trends in older adulthood can be seen in recent decades, except:

older adults are more likely to be married

By the time a baby is born, (s)he will have approximately _________ neurons.

100 billion

The concept of discontinuity is characterized by all of the following, EXCEPT:

quantitative change

Dan and Michelle have been having difficulty conceiving a child, so they've decided to try in-vitro fertilization to start a family. One of the risks of this assisted reproductive technology that they should know about is that:

25-30 percent of conceptions that occur using IVF result in multiple births (e.g., twins, triplets, etc.)

The fetal period begins ________ months after conception and lasts until birth.

2

Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smokes?

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Which of the following is NOT a drawback to longitudinal research?

stability over time

During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically?

. between the ages of 18 and 24 months

In the visual cliff experiment by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960), most babies encouraged to crawl onto the deep side of the visual cliff would:

not crawl onto the cliff side.

Children with low activity levels and somewhat negative attitudes are classified as:

slow-to-warm-up children.

Built-in reactions to stimuli that govern an infant's actions are known as:

reflexes

Miranda developed a basic sense of mistrust during infancy. Her parents bickered a lot and separated, and Miranda was often lost in the shuffle. According to Erik Erikson, Miranda:

may learn to trust other important people later in her life, but they will need to demonstrate their trustworthiness.

Which of the following is MOST likely to be a child's first word?

dog

Two-year-old Anita has learned the word "dog" to identify the family pet Rover. Now Anita says the word "dog" when she sees any animal. Anita has __________ these animals into her existing scheme.

assimilated

According to the concept of perceptual motor coupling, which of the following statements should be TRUE regarding the motor development of a baby who is born blind?

Because this baby has a reduced ability to perceive his surroundings, his motor skills should develop at a slower rate

All of the following are risk factors for SIDS, EXCEPT:

being male

Not until an infant is ________ will his or her visual acuity approximate that of an adult with normal vision.

1 year old

Petria is trying to help her young infant regulate his emotions. She can best do this by:

providing a nurturing environment.

Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:

touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose

In the Strange Situation, Jermaine used his mother as "secure base" as he actively explored the playroom. Mary Ainsworth would most likely classify Jermaine as:

securely attached

According to a survey conducted in 2004, the most common vegetable that was fed to babies by the age of 15 months of age was:

french fries

Baby Melissa has developed a sucking scheme. She learned that to get food, she must suck on her mother's breast. Now her mother has begun to introduce solid foods with a spoon. Melissa immediately sucks on the spoon. This is an example of:

assimilation

How do child-care programs for children in low-income families compare with child care available to children in families of higher economic status?

A majority of child care in the first three years of life is of unacceptably low quality, but infants from low-income families have lower-quality child care than infants from higher-income families.

Gross motor is to __________ as fine motor is to _________.

large muscles; small muscles

According to Mary Rothbart and John Bates, unlike early theoretical models of temperament, the more recent emphasis is on:

infants' ability to control their arousal

Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

the hunger cry

Which of the following statements about reciprocal socialization is TRUE?

Children socialize parents just as parents socialize children.

Marcos is 16 and eager to graduate from high school and go on to college. He has a clear sense of what he wants for a career and has well-defined values. Which of the following best accounts for Marcos' sense of identity?

He developed autonomy during childhood.

In spite of modern criticism of the first theories of attachment and its significance in healthy development:

there is ample evidence that security of attachment is important to development.

An infant's ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity of his or her emotions is called:

emotional regulation

Jean Piaget believed that children's thinking in one stage is __________ that in another stage.

qualitatively different from

Jean Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors into a higher-order system is called:

organization

"Want ice cream," "fall down," and "Mommy give drink" are all examples of:

telegraphic speech.

Behaviorists believe that language is:

a series of responses acquired through reinforcement.

At what age do children first show fear when a new person enters their environment?

by six months of age

Which of the following statements about temperament is TRUE?

Temperament is a biologically based but evolving aspect of behavior

__________ motor skills involve large-muscle activity.

gross

Juanita notes that some days with her baby are harder than others. "When I'm rested, he laughs and plays, and then I feel even better. But when I'm tired, it seems that he is crankier than ever, and then I get even crankier, and it just gets worse and worse!" These differences are the result of:

reciprocal socialization

All of the following are benefits of breast-feeding, EXCEPT:

prevention of circulatory problems

A child's expansive vocabulary is directly correlated with his or her parents':

verbal interactions with the child.

Caregivers' attempts to help infants soothe their emotions influence:

neurobiological regulation of emotions.

The ecological view of perception states that perception:

brings us into contact with the environment so that we can adapt to it.

At what age does separation protest peak?

13-15 months

The "visual cliff" is used to measure:

depth perception.

Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?

reflexive smile

People remember very little about what happened in their lives before about age:

2 years to 3 years old

Jerome Kagan's views on attachment stress:

the child's temperament and genetic characteristics

During which time period does the interaction with peers tend to increase the most dramatically?

between the ages of 18 and 24 months

According to the work of Meltzoff, how much time can pass between when an infant observes an action and imitates it?

as long as a few days

Kyoko is 13 months old and can understand about 50 words but can say only about 10 words. Kyoko's __________ vocabulary is more developed than her __________ vocabulary.

receptive;spoken

Baby Kendra is presented with two nursing pads. One comes from her mother, and the other has not been used. Which one will Kendra probably prefer?

Whether she shows a preference depends on Kendra's age

Beth, who is 6 months old, has a 17-year-old mother who is not sure about how to interact with her. Beth's mother is inconsistent, sometimes responding to Beth's needs and sometimes not responding to her needs. Beth most likely will be a(n) _______ infant.

insecure resistant

DeCasper and Spense (1986) wanted to find out if babies would prefer a story after birth if their mothers had read the story aloud to them when they were fetuses. What did they find?

The infants preferred the prenatal story over another story

Nine-month-old Tyler is placed in front of a mirror with a spot of rouge on his nose. Tyler will most likely:

touch the spot on the mirror, because he wonders why that other child has a spot on his nose.

Stranger anxiety is negatively correlated with:

proximity to mother.

Jerome weighed in at 12 pounds when he was born. Compared to other newborns (in the United States), he is:

considerably heavier than most babies.

Marcus and Debra used to go out quite often. Since their baby's birth, they have preferred spending time at home playing with the baby or going to places where they can stroll with the baby leisurely and window-shop. This change in Marcus and Debra's behavior is an example of:

the infant socializing the parents

Which of the following occurs FIRST in development?

reflexive smile

What is the main difference between most child-care policies available in the United States and in Sweden?

level of inclusion of the father

The __________ method of studying whether an infant can distinguish between two objects is done by measuring the length of time the infant looks at an object.

visual preference

Juanita notes that some days with her baby are harder than others. "When I'm rested, he laughs and plays, and then I feel even better. But when I'm tired, it seems that he is crankier than ever, and then I get even crankier, and it just gets worse and worse!" These differences are the result of:

reciprocal socialization.

Habituation __________ responsiveness to stimuli.

decreases

A loss or impairment of language ability caused by brain injury is called:

aphasia.

Child-directed speech is the:

language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences

In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) ___________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued.

active;inhibited

Mary Rothbart and John Bates (2006) believe that which of these is an important dimension of infant temperament?

self-regulation

People remember very little about what happened in the early years of their lives. This is called:

infantile amnesia

In the United States, parents tend to prefer children with a(n) ___________ temperament, whereas in China, a(n) _________ temperament is more highly valued.

active; inhibited

The peak of synaptic overproduction in the prefrontal cortex takes place at around __________ of age.

1 year

Kara is 18 months old. Kyle is 24 months old. Kara is probably able to use about __________ words; Kyle is probably able to speak about __________ words.

50;200

According to Jerome Kagan (2002, 2003), temperament can be classified by focusing on:

differences between children who are shy and timid and those who are sociable and bold.

A criticism of attachment theory is that:

other factors may be more important to an infant's adaptations to life.

Janine impatiently grabs the door handle from her toddler daughter, quickly opens the door, and hurries the little girl through. Erik Erikson would say that Janine's daughter:

will develop a sense of shame and doubt if this type of interaction occurs consistently

The interpreting of sensory information is called:

perception

A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli is called a(n):

reflexive smile

Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

the hungry cry

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